4512.0 - Corrective Services, Australia, June quarter 2018 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 06/09/2018   
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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

PERSONS IN CORRECTIVE SERVICES

The Corrective Services, Australia publication presents data for two different populations; persons in full-time custody and persons in community-based corrections. These populations cannot be compared directly. However, they are presented together to provide an overview of persons in corrective services. For the community-based corrections order types, offenders may be counted more than once if they have two or more different types of community-based corrections orders operating simultaneously.


Jun Qtr 18
Mar Qtr 18 to Jun Qtr 18

% change

Jun Qtr 17 to Jun Qtr 18

% change


Persons in full-time custody
42, 855
1.8%
4.0%
Persons in community-based corrections
69,397
0.6%
2.1%


PERSONS IN CUSTODY

In the June quarter 2018, the average daily number of full-time prisoners in Australia was 42,855. This was an increase of:
    • 2% (753 persons) from the March quarter 2018; and
    • 4% (1,651 persons) from the June quarter 2017.

Since the March quarter 2018, there were increases in the prisoner numbers for all states and territories with exception of South Australia where prisoners decreased by 1% (37 persons). The Australian Capital Territory had the largest percentage increase with 5% (24 persons). (Table 1)

In the last five years (from June quarter 2013 to June quarter 2018), the number of persons in custody has increased by 39% (12,043 persons). (Table 1 and historical data)

Graph Image for PERSONS IN FULL-TIME CUSTODY(a), Jun 2013 to Jun 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average daily number

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


In the June quarter 2018, the largest contributors to the national prisoner population were:
    • New South Wales (32% or 13,733 persons);
    • Queensland (21% or 8,793 persons);
    • Victoria (18% or 7,487 persons); and
    • Western Australia (16% or 6,898 persons). (Table 1)

Sex

The average daily number of females and males in custody both increased since the June quarter 2017, with females increasing at a higher percentage (8% or 268 persons) than males (4% or 1382 persons). (Table 1)

Over a longer time period (the past five years), the number of males in custody increased by 38% (10,745 persons) and the number of females in custody increased by 55% (1,297 persons). (Table 1 and historical data)

For the June quarter 2018, the average daily imprisonment rate for males was 414 persons per 100,000 adult male population, which was more than 11 times the rate for females (37 female persons per 100,000 adult female population). (Table 5)

Type of full-time custody

Prisoners can be housed in either:
    • Secure custody, where they are held in medium or maximum security custodial facilities requiring them to be confined by a secure physical barrier; or
    • Open custody, where they are housed in minimum security custodial facilities that do not require them to be confined by a secure parameter or physical barrier, irrespective of whether a physical barrier exists.

During the June quarter 2018, 81% of prisoners in full-time custody were held in secure custody and the remaining 19% in open custody, representing an average daily number of 34,566 and 8,289 persons respectively.

Since the June quarter 2017, the secure custody prisoner population increased by 6% (1,865 persons) and the open custody prisoner population decreased by 3% (214 persons). (Table 6)

Legal status

Legal status refers to where a person may be either sentenced or unsentenced depending on the warrant(s) or court order(s) that provide the legal basis for the administration of the person through the criminal justice system.

In the June quarter 2018, the average number of full-time prisoners on the first day of the month was 42,878, of which:
    • 66% (28,457) were sentenced; and
    • 33% (14,349) were unsentenced. (Table 8)

Graph Image for UNSENTENCED PRISONERS(a), Jun 2013 to Jun 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Source(s): Corrective Service, Australia


Federal prisoners

Federal prisoners are persons charged and sentenced under a Commonwealth statute or transferred from another country to serve their sentence in Australia.

During the June quarter 2018, the average daily number of federal sentenced prisoners in Australia was 963, a decrease of 4% (44 persons) from the March quarter 2018. (Table 10)

Rates per 100,000 adult population

Nationally, the average daily imprisonment rate for the June quarter 2018 was 222 per 100,000 adult population, increasing from 219 per 100,000 adult population in the March quarter 2018.

The Northern Territory continued to have the highest imprisonment rate of all states and territories with 965 persons per 100,000 adult population, increasing from 958 per 100,000 adult population in the March quarter 2018. Western Australia had the next highest imprisonment rate with 347 persons per 100,000 adult population, increasing from 342 per 100,000 adult population in the March quarter 2018.

Tasmania had the lowest average daily imprisonment rate (149 persons per 100,000 adult population). (Table 3)

Graph Image for AVERAGE DAILY IMPRISONMENT RATE(a), By states and territories, Jun 2017 and Jun 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of prisoners per 100,000 adult population. Based on average daily number.

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners

The average daily number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners during the June quarter 2018 was 11,963 persons. This represented an increase of 1% (146 persons) over the quarter and an increase of 5% (552 persons) over the year. (Table 1)

Based on first day of the month figures, there were 12,005 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners in the June quarter 2018, of which 66% (7,866 persons) were sentenced and 34% (4,107 persons) were unsentenced. (Table 13)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners represented 28% of the total full-time adult prisoner population during the June quarter 2018, whilst accounting for approximately 2% of the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian population aged 18 years and over (Estimates and Projections, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2001 to 2026 (cat. no. 3238.0)). (Table 1)

Three states continue to account for nearly three-quarters of the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoner population: New South Wales (29% or 3,418 persons); Queensland (23% or 2,792 persons); and Western Australia (23% or 2,707 persons). (Table 1)

The national average daily Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate was 2,505 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. The highest Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rates were recorded in:
    • Western Australia (4,252 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population);
    • Northern Territory (2,984 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population); and
    • South Australia (2,533 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population). (Table 12)

Graph Image for ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER IMPRISONMENT RATE(a), By states and territories, Jun 2017, Mar 2018 and Jun 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of prisoners per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Based on average daily number.

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


Since the June quarter 2017, South Australia, Tasmania and Queensland had decreases in their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate. The largest annual decrease was in South Australia, 7% or 187 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. The largest annual increase was in the Australian Capital Territory with 13% (262 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population). (Table 12)

PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS

Reported daily averages for number of persons serving community-based corrections orders are based on first day of the month figures. For more information, please refer to the Explanatory Notes, paragraphs 2 and 12.

Community-based corrections orders are non-custodial orders served under the authority of adult corrective services agencies and include restricted movement, reparations (fine option and community service), supervision orders (parole, bail, sentenced probation) and post-sentence supervision orders.

Number of persons in community-based corrections

The average daily number of persons serving community-based corrections orders in the June quarter 2018 was 69,397 persons, representing;
    • an increase of less than 1% (433 persons) from the March quarter 2018; and
    • an increase of 2% (1,406 persons) from the June quarter 2017. (Table 1)

Graph Image for PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS(a), Jun 2013 to Jun 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


Three states accounted for over three-quarters of the national number of persons in community-based corrections:
    • Queensland (29% or 20,414 persons);
    • New South Wales (28% or 19,411 persons); and
    • Victoria (21% or 14,281 persons). (Table 1)

Over the past five years (since the June quarter 2013), persons serving community-based corrections orders increased by 28% or 15,365 persons. (Table 1 and historical data)

Sex

In the June quarter 2018, males accounted for 81% (55,867 persons) of the total persons serving community based correction orders, and the remaining one-fifth were female (13,514 persons).

Over the past five years (since June quarter 2013), females serving community-based correction orders have increased at a higher rate than males, increasing by 40% (3,858 persons) compared to males by 26% (11,512 persons). (Table 1 and historical data)

Type of orders

A person may be serving more than one type of CBC order at the same time. Therefore, the total count of orders may be greater than the total count of persons serving CBC orders. For more information, please refer to the Explanatory Notes, paragraph 15.

In the June quarter 2018, there were a total of 74,114 CBC orders.

The three most prevalent order types in Australia were:
    • Sentenced probation (40,494 orders);
    • Parole (16,473 orders); and
    • Community service orders (11,192 orders). (Table 17)

There were increases since the March quarter 2018 for:
    • Parole (405 orders);
    • Community service (291 orders);
    • Post-sentence supervision (26 orders); and
    • Restricted movement (23 orders).

There were decreases since the March quarter 2018 for:
    • Sentenced probation (143 orders);
    • Fine option (83 orders); and
    • Bail (33 orders). (Table 17)

Graph Image for STATE AND TERRITORY PROPORTION OF SELECTED CBC ORDER TYPES, Jun 2017, Mar 2018 and Jun 2018

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


Rates per 100,000 adult population

In the June quarter 2018, the daily average national rate of persons in community-based corrections was 360 persons per 100,000 adult population, representing an increase of less than 1% (1 person per 100,000) from the March quarter 2018 and for the year. (Table 16)

Graph Image for COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS RATE(a), By states and territories, Jun 2017, Mar 2018 and Jun 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of persons serving community-based corrections orders. Based on average number on the first day of the month, per 100,000 adult population

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in community-based corrections

Nationally, the average daily number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in community-based corrections for the June quarter 2018 was 14,512, representing an increase of 1% (198 persons) from the March quarter 2018 and an increase of 5% (710 persons) for the year.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons make up just over one fifth (21%) of the total community-based corrections population, of which just over three-quarters were located within three states: Queensland (33% or 4,718 persons); New South Wales (32% or 4,590 persons); and Western Australia (12% or 1,748 persons). (Table 18)

Graph Image for ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS(a), Jun 2016 to Jun 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


PRISONER RECEPTIONS

A reception refers to the entry into full-time adult corrective services custody from the community.

In the June quarter 2018, there were 16,760 prisoner receptions in Australia. Prisoner receptions decreased by 3% (540 persons) from March quarter 2018 and increased by 5% (828 persons) for the year. (Tables 20)

The majority of prisoner receptions in the June quarter 2018 were male (85% (14,315 persons) and the remaining 15% were female (2,436 persons). (Table 20)

Unsentenced prisoner receptions accounted for three quarters (12,558 persons) of the 16,760 prisoner reception. The remaining quarter (4,202 persons) were sentenced. (Table 21)

There were 5,339 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoner receptions in the June quarter 2018, a decrease of 9% (507 persons) since the March quarter 2018 and an increase of 6% (323 persons) for the year.

In the June quarter 2018, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoner receptions represented 32% of the overall prisoner receptions population. (Tables 20)