Summary of Findings
Persons whose main job is Part-time, casual or temporary
CHANGE SINCE 1991
In October 1997 in NSW, an estimated 685,000 persons were employed in their main job on a part-time, casual or temporary basis, this being 25% of all employed persons in NSW. Of the 685,000 persons, 33% were employed on a regular casual basis, followed by 23% employed as permanent part-time workers and 22% employed on a casual full-time basis.
Since 1991 there has been a 50% increase in the number of persons employed in their main job on a part-time, casual or temporary basis, from 455,200 persons in 1991 to 685,000 in 1997. While the numbers employed in this type of work have risen in all categories, most of the rise has been in casual full-time employment, from 14,400 in 1991 to 147,900 in 1997. In 1997 this included 41,200 persons who stated they were permanent when surveyed, but were classified as casual as they did not receive paid holiday leave.
The number of males employed as part-time, casual or temporary workers has more than doubled since 1991, from 100,900 in 1991 to 221,800 in 1997. The major part of the increase for males was in the category of casual full-time employment. The number of males in this category increased from 8,800 in 1991 to 94,800 in 1997. Males employed part-time also increased from 90,800 in 1991 to 123,200 in 1997.
The number of females employed as part-time, casual or temporary workers rose from 354,300 in 1991 to 463,200 in 1997, an increase of 31%. As with males, the biggest increase occurred in casual full-time employment from 5,600 in 1991 to 53,100 in 1997.
DISTRIBUTION BY SEX
Since 1991, the overall distribution by sex in this type of employment has changed. While the total number of males employed as part-time, casual or temporary workers has risen, the majority of workers employed under such arrangements are still female. In 1997, just over two thirds (68%) of the part-time, casual or temporary workers were female, as compared to 78% in 1991. In 1997, females comprised 86% of all permanent part-time workers, down from 91% in 1991. Females comprised 73% of regular casual workers in 1997, having fallen from 79% in 1991. In 1997, females made up 69% of irregular casual workers, which was around the same level as in 1991 (67%).
DISTRIBUTION BY AGE
In 1997 the total number of persons employed as part-time, casual or temporary workers is highest in the 15-24 year age group. The numbers in non-permanent full-time employment, comprised mostly of casual full-time, peaks in the 25-34 age group. This peak is made up mostly of male workers, 34,100 out of a total of 50,400. The number of persons employed as permanent and temporary part-time rises steadily across age groups, this rise consisting mostly of female workers. Persons in regular casual work are higher in the 15-24 age groups, which is reflected in the numbers for both male and females in this age group.
Persons who were employed in their main job on a part-time, casual or temporary basis were concentrated in five main industry sectors. These were Retail trade (24%), Health and community services (14%), Accommodation, cafes and restaurants (10%), Manufacturing (9%) and Education (9%). Regular casual workers accounted for most people in this type of employment in both Retail trade (57%) and in Accommodation cafes and restaurants (50%). Permanent and temporary part-time employment accounted for high proportions in Health and community services (59%) and Education (40%). Non-permanent full-time, comprised mostly of casual full-time, was the highest category (48%) in the Manufacturing sector.
The occupations with the largest numbers of persons in this type of employment were Elementary clerical, sales and service workers with an estimated 156,000 persons or 23% and Intermediate clerical, sales and service workers which also represented 23%. Other occupations with large numbers of workers in this type of employment were Labourers and related workers (16%) and Professionals (15%).
The most common reason for choosing part-time, casual or temporary work as a main job was personal reasons (42% ) followed by employment reasons (32%) and family reasons (17%). Of women who worked on a part-time, casual or temporary basis, 44% did so for personal reasons, 28% for employment reasons and 25% for family reasons. Of men who worked on a part-time, casual or temporary basis, 43% did so for employment reasons and 37% for personal reasons.