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4604.0 - Energy Account, Australia, 2012-13 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/02/2015   
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MAIN FINDINGS


SUMMARY

The Energy Account Australia (EAA) provides statistics to monitor changes in the supply and use of energy over time, both from an economic and an environmental perspective. The EAA forms part of a suite of environmental-economic accounts being developed for Australia.

Australia's energy at a glance
  • Australia's net energy inputs increased to approximately 21,700 PJ in 2012-13 from 19,900 PJ in 2011-12.
  • Energy intensity for all industries (measured in GJ/$m IGVA) remained constant from 2011-12 to 2012-13.
  • Household energy consumption per capita decreased by 0.7 GJ, (or 1.5%) in 2012-13 from 2011-12.
  • Energy reserves to production rate in 2012-13 varied between 11.4% for crude oil and 0.2% for brown coal.

The diagram below presents an overview of key data and details the scope of the EAA by showing the supply and use system of energy components through the economy.

Figure 1.1 Supply and Use, by components - 2012-13
Figure 1 below presents an overview of key data and details the scope of the EAA by showing the supply and use system of energy components through the eco


MAIN FINDINGS


Introduction

The energy data contained in this publication are produced in accordance with the principles outlined in the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA), using a supply-use framework. Further detail on supply and use frameworks is contained in the Explanatory Notes.

The data on physical supply and use of energy products are primarily derived from the Department of Industry and Science, Australian Energy Statistics (AES), 2014. Information gathered from the Department of Industry and Science are supplemented by ABS surveys which collect price and volume information. ABS uses the SEEA to transform AES into a framework consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA), enabling linkages between energy supply, energy use and monetary data from the Australian National Accounts.


TOTAL ECONOMY

Australia’s total net supply was approximately 21,700 PJ in 2012-13, an increase of 9% from the previous year. The majority of total net supply was produced domestically (90%) and the remainder was imported (10%). The domestic share of production rose 9% from the previous year. The main driver was an increase in the production of black coal, which rose by 905 PJ or 9%.


Energy decoupling

Energy decoupling occurs when the rate of change of energy use is not equal to the rate of change of economic activity. Figure 1.2 shows some decoupling of domestic energy use from GDP prior to 2010-11 but from 2010-11 the growth in energy use has been greater than GDP growth.


Graph Image for Figure 1.2 - Energy decoupling, 2008-09 to 2012-13

Annotation(s): Index 100 = 2008-09

Footnote(s): (a) Chain Volume Measures

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia




Other total economy indicators are available in the Energy Indicators data cube under the 'Downloads' tab:
  • Degree of self sufficiency
  • Net energy use index
  • Share of renewable energy in net energy inputs
  • GDP, chain volume series index.


INDUSTRY

The energy intensity of an industry is a measure of the energy consumed to produce one unit of economic output. The unit of measurement used in the following graphs and commentary for each industry is gigajoules (GJ) of energy consumed per millions of dollars of Industry Gross Value Added (GJ/$m IGVA). A higher energy intensity figure does not necessarily imply that an industry is using energy inefficiently. Most industries engaged in physical transformation of raw materials will use more energy than service industries.
  • Energy intensity for all selected industries remained constant between 2011-12 and 2012-13 (2,544 GJ/$m IGVA).
  • Manufacturing is the most energy intensive industry and increased by 5% from 2011-12 to 11,527 GJ/$m IGVA.
  • Between 2008-09 and 2012-13 energy intensity for all industries decreased by 3%.

Further details on energy intensity are contained in the Explanatory Notes.

Differences in energy intensity between industries reflect different production processes and the share of energy within the production input mix.

The energy intensity of Australian industries fell by 3% between 2008-09 and 2012-13. The Mining industry energy intensity fell by 6% from 2011-12 to 2012-13. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries is the only industry showing a continual rise in energy intensity from 2008-09 to 2012-13. Australia’s most energy intensive industries in 2012-13 were Manufacturing (11,527 GJ/$m IGVA), Transport (8,414 GJ/$m IGVA) and Mining (3,637 GJ/$m IGVA), while the least energy intensive industries in 2012-13 were Construction (1,527 GJ/$m IGVA) and Commercial and Services (449 GJ/$m IGVA).

Table 1.1 ENERGY INTENSITY, 2008-09 to 2012-13

2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
GJ/$m IGVA
GJ/$m IGVA
GJ/$m IGVA
GJ/$m IGVA
GJ/$m IGVA

Agriculture
2 489
2 600
2 645
2 814
2 931
Mining
4 347
3 743
3 934
3 879
3 637
Manufacturing
10 820
10 999
10 829
10 994
11 527
Water Supply and Waste Services
1 859
1 858
1 696
1 743
1 746
Construction
1 583
1 610
1 624
1 524
1 527
Transport
8 685
8 652
8 601
8 462
8 414
Commercial and Services
434
449
441
446
449
All Industries
2 634
2 602
2 566
2 543
2 544
Percentage change from previous year
-1.2%
-1.4%
-0.9%
0.0%



HOUSEHOLDS

Energy use per household is affected by a number of factors, including economic (increases in energy costs), technological (increase in take up of photovoltaic and thermal solar energy generation), energy conservation measures (insulation and energy audits), as well as increased energy efficiency of household appliances. Structural changes also have an impact on households (albeit over a longer period) - for example household demographics (more single person households), which is countered by a trend towards larger four or more bedroom houses which consume more energy for heating and cooling.
  • Energy use per Australian household has decreased by 2 GJ in 2012-13 at the same time as the number of households increased by approximately 155,800.
  • In the last 5 years, energy use per capita has decreased by 2%.
  • The total energy use by Australian households has increased by 4% from 2008-09 to 2012-13 at the same time Australian households increased by 8%.

The total use of energy by Australian households increased by 4% between 2008-09 and 2012-13. During this period, energy consumption per household has decreased by 3% and energy use per person decreased by 2%. These decreases in energy use have been accompanied by an increase in Australia's population of 7% and an increase in the number of households of 8% from 2008-09 to 2012-13.

Household solar energy generation increased by 188% from 2008-09 to 2012-13 and has increased by 24% from 2011-12 to 2012-13.

SUPPLY


Overview

The energy supply tables present data on the supply of energy products for each year from 2008-09 to 2012-13. Net supply consists of energy products as they enter the economy, either by saleable energy products (e.g. mining production) or as imports.

The headline measure from the net supply tables is net energy supply, defined as all net energy inputs from domestic sources and imports. Net energy inputs include losses from generation, transmission and other sources.
  • Australia's net energy supply was approximately 21,700 PJ in 2012-13, an increase of 9% from the previous year.
  • Black coal production increased by 9% from 2011-12 and exports of black coal increased by 11% from 2011-12.
  • Crude oil and refinery feedstock imports account for 54% of all energy imports.


Graph Image for Figure 1.3 - Net Energy Supply, by industry and imports, Australia, 2008-09 to 2012-13

Footnote(s): (a) Includes Forestry and Fishing; (b) Includes Gas, Water supply and Waste services; (c) Includes Construction, Transport and Commercial and services industries.

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia




The Mining industry was the main producer of energy in 2012-13 (18,536 PJ or 95%) of domestic energy extracting fossil fuels and uranium. Net energy supply by industries and imports increased by 9% from 2011-12 to 2012-13. Household extraction of energy, although shown separately, has been included in the totals of relevant industries as recommended in the SEEA guidelines.

Black coal accounts for 55% of domestic production and the increase in black coal production was reflected in the black coal exports, which increased from 2011-12 (by 970 PJ or 11%). There was a decrease in crude oil and refinery feedstock production from 2011-12 (by 106 PJ or 11%). Imports of this product increased in 2012-13 from 2011-12 (by 19 PJ or 2%).

Total imports increased by 90 PJ in 2012-13 from 2011-12, continuing the trend of increases since 2008-09 when energy imports were 1,764 PJ. The main imports in 2012-13 were crude oil and refinery feedstock (1,160 PJ or 54% of all energy imports) and diesel (483 PJ or 23% of all energy imports, up from 433 PJ or 11% in 2011-12). There was an increase in imports of other refined fuels and products in 2012-13 from 2011-12 (of 11 PJ to 224 PJ).

Renewable energy extraction, which has steadily increased since 2008-09, increased by 36 PJ from 2011-12 to 2012-13 and remains at 2% of total domestic energy production. From 2011-12 to 2012-13 solar energy extraction increased (by 5 PJ or 24%), and hydro-electricity supply, which fluctuates according to water availability, also increased (by 15 PJ or 29%). Wind energy extraction increased in 2012-13 from 2011-12 (by 4 PJ or 18%).


Graph Image for Figure 1.4 - Net energy supply, by product (including imports), Australia, 2008-09 to 2012-13

Footnote(s): (a) 'Other refined products' includes petrol, diesel, aviation fuel, kerosene, heating oil, refinery fuel and naptha; (b) 'Renewables' includes biomass wood, bagasse, biofuels, hydro-electricity, solar and wind energy. .

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia



Table 1.2 NET PHYSICAL SUPPLY OF ENERGY PRODUCTS, direct extraction from the environment and imports, 2012-13 - energy units

Non-renewable
Renewable
Total Supply
Industry
PJ
PJ
PJ

Agriculture
62
62
Mining
18 536
18 536
Manufacturing
135
135
Electricity, gas, water and waste
648
(a)136
784
Construction
Transport
Commercial and services
1
1
Total direct extraction
19 184
335
19 519
Imports
2 136
2 136
Net Supply
21 320
335
21 655

(a) includes supply by households

DEMAND


Overview

The energy use tables present data on the use of energy products for 2008-09 to 2012-13. Net use consists of: intermediate consumption by industry and government; final consumption by households, exports, inventory changes and statistical discrepancy, and conversions and losses.
  • Australia's total use of energy increased by 9% from 2011-12 to 2012-13 which included a 14% increase in energy exports.
  • Australia’s domestic energy consumption (i.e. industry and government, and household energy use, excluding exports) was 4,139 PJ in 2012-13, an increase of 57 PJ from 2011-12.
  • Industry energy use was 3,092 PJ, an increase of 55 PJ from 2011-12, accounting for 75% of total net energy use. Its primary fuel sources were diesel (743 PJ or 24%), electricity (679 PJ or 22%) and natural gas (617 PJ or 20%).
  • Government energy use, included in total industry use was 84 PJ or 2% of total domestic energy use in 2012-13.
  • Households reported energy use of 1,047 PJ, an increase of 2 PJ from 2011-12, representing a 25% share of total net energy use.


Graph Image for Figure 1.5 - Domestic net energy use, by industry, Australia, 2008-09 to 2012-13

Footnote(s): (a) Includes Forestry and Fishing; (b) Includes Gas supply, Water supply and Waste services; (c) Includes Government use

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia




The export market accounts for 80% of Australian energy extraction. Energy exports in 2012-13 were approximately 15,600 PJ, an increase of 14% from 2011-12. Australia’s main exports were black coal (9,467 PJ or 61%), uranium (3,944 PJ or 25%) and natural gas (1,303 PJ or 8%).

Between 2011-12 and 2012-13 exports of black coal rose (by 970 PJ or 11%), uranium exports increased (by 693 PJ or 21%), natural gas exports increased (by 277 PJ or 27%) and crude oil and feedstock exports fell (by 64 PJ or 9%). Black coal exports accounted for 61% of total energy exports and 88% of black coal production.

The Manufacturing industry was the largest user of domestic energy (1,170 PJ or 28%) in 2012-13, an increase from 2011-12 (of 24 PJ or 2%). The manufacture of non-ferrous metals accounted for 34% of manufacturing energy use, an increase from 2011-12 (of 25 PJ or 7%). Other major contributors were petroleum and chemical products (27%), food, beverages, textiles (16%) and other manufacturing products (12%).

The Transport industry was the second largest consumer of domestic energy (625 PJ or 15%), an increase from 2011-12 (of 16 PJ or 3%). The largest components of transport energy use were 'other refined fuels and products' (291 PJ or 47%), which increased by 3% from 2011-12, and diesel (252 PJ or 40%).

General government activities are included within industry estimates. In 2012-13 estimates of energy use by Government in the economy accounted for 84 PJ (2%) of total domestic use. The main energy source was electricity (50%) and diesel (17%).

The main fuels consumed domestically in Australia were electricity (886 PJ or 21%), diesel (840 PJ or 20%), natural gas (772 PJ or 19%) and petrol (660 PJ or 16%). Between 2011-12 and 2012-13 the use of diesel increased by 14 PJ and petrol use remained the same. The domestic consumption of natural gas increased ( by 29 PJ or 4%) while electricity decreased by 3 PJ from 2011-12.

Losses and conversions occur in the transformation of fossil fuels and organic waste into electricity and biofuels, and crude oil into LPG and petroleum products, and coal into coke and coal by-products in steel making. Net losses and conversions accounted for 1,717 PJ in 2012-13.

Household energy use accounted for 1,047 PJ or 25% of total domestic energy use in 2012-13. The main energy sources were petrol (46%), electricity (20%) and natural gas (15%). Petrol and diesel consumption by households remained on par with 2011-12. Between 2011-12 and 2012-13 household use of natural gas increased (by 4 PJ or 3%) and household use of electricity decreased (by 3 PJ or 1%).
Graph Image for Figure 1.6 - Exports by product, Australia, 2008-09 to 2012-13

Footnote(s): (a) 'Other refined products' includes aviation fuel, kerosene, heating oil, refinery fuel and naptha

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia


Graph Image for Figure 1.7 - Domestic net energy use, by product, Australia, 2008-09 to 2012-13

Footnote(s): (a) 'Coal by-products' include blast furnace gas, coal tar, benzene/toluene/xylene feedstock and coal oven gas; (b) 'Other refined products' includes aviation fuel, kerosene, heating oil, fuel oil, refinery oil and naptha; (c) 'Renewables' includes biomass wood, bagasse, biofuels, hydroelectricity, solar and wind energy.

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia



Table 1.3 NET USE OF ENERGY PRODUCTS, (2012-13) - energy units

Non-renewable
Renewable
Total Use
Industry
PJ
PJ
PJ

Agriculture
102
102
Mining
424
2
426
Manufacturing
1 045
125
1 170
Electricity, gas, water and waste
138
3
141
Construction
183
183
Transport
625
625
Commercial and services
360
1
361
Government use (a)
84
84
Total industry use
2 961
131
3 092
Changes in inventories
230
230
Exports
15 569
15 569
Conversions and losses
1 717
1 717
Total net use
19 743
196
19 939
Of which
Net use by households
982
65
1 047

(a) General government use only. Excludes public non-financial corporations.


ENERGY ASSETS


Overview

Environmental assets are best defined as those resources available for harvesting from the environment. These assets are commonly called Economic Demonstrated Resources (EDR) and are distinct from those that are too difficult to access with current technology and any hypothetical resources that may exist.
  • Physical black coal stocks increased by 4% from 2011-12 to 2012-13 and are valued at $134 billion.
  • The remaining resource life of crude oil is 9 years at current production rates.
  • The annual production rate of black coal increased by 7% from 2011-12 to 2012-13.

On 2012-13 production levels there are, at maximum and not counting new discoveries, 663 years of brown coal remaining. Shorter term energy sources vary from 9 years (Crude Oil) to 115 years (Black coal) and 183 years (Uranium oxides). The extraction rate of energy resources measures the rate of removal of a resource compared to the EDR.


Graph Image for Figure 1.8 - Resource life, selected energy products, 2008-09 to 2012-13 (a)

Footnote(s): (a) The remaining resource life of a product at current production rates.

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia




In the EAA physical energy assets are limited to coal, crude oil, condensate, industrial gasses and uranium oxides. In 2012-13 known levels of black coal resources increased by 4% (1,601,100 PJ to 1,663,200 PJ) while brown coal remained the same. All other physical energy assets decreased in 2012-13 from the 2011-12 level. Crude oil and LPG had the largest decreases with EDR stocks falling by 9% from 2011-12 for both energy resources.

Natural gas stocks were valued at $180 billion in 2012-13, an increase of $25 billion or 16% from 2011-12. Black coal stocks which increased by 4% from 2011-12 experienced a fall in value of 21% from $170 billion to $134 billion. LPG and uranium oxides stock increased in value by 5% and 6% respectively.

Table 1.4 ENERGY ASSETS, Economically Demonstrated Resources, as at June 2013

Black Coal
Brown Coal
Crude Oil
LPG
Natural Gas
Uranium

Closing stock (PJ)
1 663 200
433 160
4 436
2 923
105 602
655 480

Source: Australian System of National Accounts, 2013-14, ABS cat. no. 5204.0

Table 1.5 ENERGY ASSETS, Economically Demonstrated Resources, Net Present Value, Australia, as at June 2013

Black Coal
Brown Coal
Crude Oil
LPG
Natural Gas
Uranium

Closing stock ($m)
133 919
275
51 714
42 755
179 723
253

Source: Australian System of National Accounts, 2013-14, ABS cat. no. 5204.0

Table 1.6 ENERGY ASSETS INDICATORS, Australia, as at June 2013

Black Coal
Brown Coal
Crude Oil
LPG
Natural Gas
Uranium

Extraction rate (% of EDR) (a)
0.9
0.2
11.4
3.3
1.9
0.5
Estimated resource life remaining (years)
114.5
662.7
8.8
30.6
52
182.9

(a) The rate at which physical removal of energy resources occurs from the energy deposits which occur naturally.


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