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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2006  
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Contents >> Chapter 16 - Mining >> Production and trade of major minerals, oil, gas and petroleum

PRODUCTION AND TRADE OF MAJOR MINERALS, OIL, GAS AND PETROLEUM

MINERAL, OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION

Table 16.16 shows the quantity produced for selected minerals, oil and gas. Between 1999-2000 and 2003-04 the most significant increases in production were for manganese ore and concentrate (75%), iron ore (38%) and nickel in mine products (29%). The steady increase in iron ore and concentrate production over this period was driven by increased production in Western Australia, which accounts for 97% of Australian production.

Production of diamonds, gold, lead, ilmenite, rutile, crude oil and LPG decreased between 1999-2000 and 2003-04 with the largest falls recorded for crude oil and diamonds, 26% and 18% respectively. Diamond production changed significantly during the period with increases of 36% in 2001-02 and 4% in 2002-03; and decreases of 24% in both 2000-01 and 2003-04.

16.16 VOLUME OF MINERAL, OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION, Selected minerals, oil and gas
Units
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Percentage change from 1999-2000 to 2003-04

Metallic minerals
Bauxite
Mt
51
55
54
54
56
9.8
Copper ore and concentrate
’000 t
2,340
2,577
2,590
2,555
2,340
0.0
Gold in mine products(a)
t
299
296
265
278
267
-10.7
Iron ore and concentrate
Mt
160
176
185
198
221
38.1
Lead ore and concentrate
’000 t
974
1,000
1,020
970
960
-1.4
Manganese ore and concentrate
’000 t
1,755
1,948
1,850
2,472
3,062
74.5
Nickel in mine products(a)
’000 t
144
195
193
183
185
28.5
Ilmenite
’000 t
2,134
2,092
1,843
2,069
1,910
-10.5
Rutile
’000 t
185
209
207
208
154
-16.8
Synthetic rutile
’000 t
566
650
612
673
696
23.0
Titanium dioxide pigment
’000 t
172
181
186
189
196
14.0
Uranium
t
8,217
9,549
7,964
9,263
9,538
16.1
Zinc ore and concentrates
’000 t
2,343
2,697
2,715
2,806
2,536
8.2
Zircon
’000 t
372
377
389
458
448
20.4
Coal
Black coal (saleable)
Mt
239
258
273
275
286
19.7
Brown coal
Mt
67
65
68
67
67
0.0
Other minerals
Diamonds
'000 ct
29,672
22,475
30,676
32,006
24,310
-18.1
Salt
'000 t
9,610
9,492
9,233
10,438
10,705
11.4
Oil and gas
Crude oil and condensate
ML
37,447
38,705
36,100
33,321
27,716
-26.0
Natural gas
Mm3
31,180
31,524
32,136
33,162
33,279
6.7
LPG (naturally occurring)
ML
4,832
4,056
4,647
4,681
4,639
-4.0

(a) 'In mine products' relates to the metal content of the mineral.

Source: ABARE, 'Australian Mineral Statistics'; ABARE, 'Australian Commodity Statistics, 2004'.


MINERAL AND OIL PROCESSING AND TREATMENT

As few minerals, oil and gas can be directly used in the form in which they are mined, most of these undergo processing and treatment before use.

Table 16.17 shows the production of the main manufactured products of mineral and oil origin.


16.17 PRODUCTION OF PRINCIPAL MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS OF MINERAL AND OIL ORIGIN

Units
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04

METALS

Non-ferrous
Alumina
’000 t
15,037
16,098
16,417
16,413
16,796
Refined aluminium
’000 t
1,742
1,788
1,809
1,855
1,877
Refined copper
’000 t
477
517
561
537
458
Lead bullion
’000 t
165
153
201
181
143
Refined lead
’000 t
233
215
275
267
247
Refined zinc
’000 t
405
534
572
570
502
Refined tin
t
602
1,039
829
708
553
Ferrous
Raw steel
’000 t
8,053
8,003
8,311
9,399
9,445
Precious
Refined gold
t
383
361
346
386
397
Refined silver
t
543
532
616
672
619

PETROLEUM

Petroleum products
Diesel automotive oil
ML
12,737
13,212
13,064
13,335
12,544
Industrial and marine diesel fuel
ML
60
98
105
117
84
Fuel oil
ML
1,839
1,951
1,684
1,441
1,105
Automotive gasoline
ML
18,652
17,887
18,000
17,984
17,375

BUILDING MATERIALS

Clay bricks
m
1,710
1,441
1,516
1,639
1,685
Portland cement
’000 t
7,937
6,821
7,236
7,731
8,460

CHEMICALS

Single superphosphates
’000 t
1,670
1,837
2,052
1,423
1,446

Source: Manufacturing Production, Australia (8301.0); ABARE, 'Australian Mineral Statistics', various issues and 'Australian Commodity Statistics 2004', Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources, 'Australian Petroleum Statistics'.


EXPORTS OF MAJOR MINERALS, OIL AND GAS

Export earnings of minerals, oil and gas from the Australian resources sector fell to $52 billion (b) in 2003-04, a decrease of $3b on the previous year. The resources sector covering minerals and energy production includes some commodities which are processed outside the mining industry (as defined by ANZSIC).

Table 16.18 provides details of the quantity and value of the main minerals, oil and gas commodities exported from Australia. In 2003-04, black coal (including coking and steaming) was the largest export earner ($11b), followed by refined gold ($6b), iron ore and pellets ($5b), crude oil and other refinery feedstock ($5b), alumina ($4b) and aluminium ($3b).

16.18 EXPORTS OF MAJOR MINERALS, OIL AND GAS, Value and quantity

2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04




Units
Quantity
$m
Quantity
$m
Quantity
$m
Quantity
$m

Alumina
kt
12,721
4,507
13,091
4,114
13,168
3,660
13,572
3,781
Aluminium (ingot metal)
kt
1,471
4,229
1,490
3,965
1,551
3,696
1,546
3,440
Coal, black
Coking
Mt
106
6,597
106
8,038
108
7,448
112
6,510
Steaming
Mt
88
4,204
92
5,294
100
4,448
107
4,372
Copper
kt
694
2,286
749
2,159
687
2,005
652
2,172
Diamonds
'000 ct
25,513
634
25,811
512
32,274
789
26,667
531
Gold, refined
t
302
4,887
280
4,950
282
5,133
315
5,510
Iron and steel
Iron ore and pellets
Mt
157
4,903
156
5,160
181
5,342
195
5,272
Iron and steel
kt
2,931
1,484
3,297
1,484
3,589
1,855
3,793
1,682
Lead
kt
672
637
731
729
735
657
688
726
Magnesia
t
161,236
53
151,760
56
143,372
52
154,620
51
Manganese ore and concentrate
kt
1,522
261
1,660
299
2,014
313
2,603
383
Oil and gas
Crude oil and other refinery feedstock
ML
24,044
8,137
23,936
6,390
20,950
6,402
17,526
5,055
LNG
Mt
8
2,671
8
2,613
8
2,607
8
2,174
LPG
ML
2,785
830
3,211
721
3,194
855
2,916
647
Salt
kt
8,636
253
8,912
267
10,172
233
10,285
186
Tin
t
9,660
76
8,026
49
5,963
38
143
1
Titanium minerals
Ilmenite concentrate
kt
1,012
154
914
138
1,020
135
783
82
Rutile concentrate
kt
190
161
190
167
195
149
146
95
Uranium oxide
t
9,722
497
7,367
361
9,593
427
9,099
364
Zinc
kt
1,456
1,882
1,488
1,529
1,548
1,427
1,369
1,235
Zircon concentrate
kt
375
228
388
272
445
281
426
240

Source: ABARE, 'Australian Commodity Statistics, 2004'.


Graph 16.19 shows the value of Australia's four largest mineral and oil exports during the period 1996-97 to 2003-04. Exports of black coal, crude oil and other refinery feedstock, and iron ore and pellets have been growing, with crude oil and other refinery feedstock recording the largest increase (139%) followed by iron ore and pellets (67%) and black coal (37%). Black coal exports peaked in 2001-02 mainly as a result of an increase in unit values of coking and steaming coal exports. A similar peak was observed for the export of crude oil and other refinery feedstock although it occurred in 2000-01. Over the three years following this peak the export value of crude oil and other refinery feedstock dropped $3b.

Graph 16.19: EXPORTS OF SELECTED MINERALS AND OIL


The major markets for Australian mineral and oil exports were Japan, Republic of (South) Korea, United Kingdom, Singapore and Taiwan for the period 1989-90 to 2003-04 (graph 16.20).


Japan was consistently the main destination among the Asian countries for Australian minerals and oil, receiving 21% ($10b) of total exports in 2003-04. The main minerals and oil exported to Japan were coal, crude oil and other refinery feedstock, LPG, iron ore and pellets. Of this, coal was the most significant. In 2003-04, 59 megatonnes (Mt) of steaming coal and 41 Mt of coking coal were exported to Japan (55% and 37% respectively of total Australian exports for these commodities). In the same year, 2,079 megalitres (ML) of crude oil and other refinery feedstock, 2,109 ML of LPG and 75,353 kt of iron ore and pellets were also exported to this country. These exports respectively accounted for 12%, 72% and 39% of Australia's total exports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock, LPG and iron ore and pellets.

The Republic of (South) Korea, Singapore and Taiwan were the other main export destinations. After Japan, the Republic of (South) Korea and Taiwan were the main markets for Australia's black coal. The steaming coal sent to these destinations amounted to 16 Mt (15% of total exported steaming coal) and 10 Mt (9%) respectively in 2003-04. Iron ore and pellets, and crude oil and other refinery feedstock were also exported to the Republic of (South) Korea. Singapore was a major market for Australian crude oil and other refinery feedstock, importing 3,948 ML from Australia in 2003-04, 23% of the total volume exported.

In the period 1989-90 to 2003-04 exports to the United Kingdom had more than doubled. In 2003-04, the exports to this country were valued at $2b. Gold was the most significant mineral exported and amounted to 71 tonnes, 23% of Australia's total gold exports.

Graph 16.20: EXPORTS OF MINERALS AND OIL, By country of destination


IMPORTS OF MAJOR MINERALS AND PETROLEUM

Many imported mineral and petroleum commodities have had a certain amount of manufacturing applied to their raw forms. Table 16.21 provides details of the major commodities imported in the period 2000-01 to 2003-04. In terms of value, the largest imports for 2003-04 were for crude oil and other refinery feedstock ($6.6b), followed by other refinery products ($3.4b). The major sources of Australian imports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock were Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam with a combined value of $3.9b (59.5% of the total import value for this commodity).

16.21 IMPORTS OF MAJOR MINERALS AND PETROLEUM, Value and quantity

2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04




Units
Quantity
$m
Quantity
$m
Quantity
$m
Quantity
$m

Diamonds
'000 ct
2,598
249
2,431
255
3,218
302
2,229
309
Gold
n.a.
n.a.
1,686
n.a.
2,207
n.a.
2,957
n.a.
2,541
Iron and steel
Iron ore and pellets
kt
4,658
122
3,880
104
4,667
114
5,417
140
Iron and steel
kt
896
923
1,354
1,099
1,306
1,226
1,583
1,353
Petroleum
Crude oil and other refinery feedstock
ML
26,343
8,753
27,308
7,458
27,958
8,610
23,498
6,594
LPG
ML
633
160
588
116
299
76
785
166
Automotive gasoline
ML
1,189
432
1,436
448
1,673
569
3,242
1,168
Diesel fuel
ML
1,129
438
1,280
414
1,627
561
3,374
1,133
Other refinery products
ML
902
463
2,327
953
5,194
1,971
9,762
3,427
Phosphate rock
kt
823
62
933
72
711
50
723
41
Platinum and platinum group metals
kg
2,158
30
1,652
42
2,319
64
2,984
86

Source: ABARE, 'Australian Commodity Statistics, 2004'.


Graph 16.22 shows imports of selected major minerals and petroleum during the period 1997-98 to 2003-04. The imports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock were significantly larger than the imports of other minerals particularly in 2000-01.


While the volumes of imports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock fluctuated over the period 1997-98 to 2003-04, the large changes in the value of imports between 1998-99 and 2002-03 were mainly due to significant unit value rises in 1999-2000 (up 84%) and 2000-01 (up 42%).

Graph 16.22: IMPORTS OF SELECTED MINERALS AND PETROLEUM

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