Australian Bureau of Statistics

Rate the ABS website
ABS Home > Statistics > By Release Date
1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2006  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/01/2006   
   Page tools: Print Print Page RSS Feed RSS Bookmark and Share Search this Product  
Contents >> Chapter 21 - Tourism >> Economic contribution of the tourism industry

ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY

THE VALUE OF TOURISM PRODUCTION

The contribution of an industry to the overall production of goods and services in an economy is measured by gross value added (GVA). Information on the relationship between industry GVA and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is provided in the Industry Structure and Performance chapter.

A Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) is recognised internationally as the best method for measuring the economic contribution of tourism. Tourism GVA and GDP are the major economic aggregates derived in the TSA.

The tourism industry share of total GVA in 2003-04 was 3.5% (table 21.1). This represents the lowest point in the six-year time series, having declined from its peak of 4.3% in 1998-99. The tourism industry share for 2003-04 declined because tourism GVA grew at a much slower rate (0.3%) than the very strong growth in GVA for the whole economy (7.3%).

The high tourism share of GDP in 2000-01 was largely due to price increases in tourism services resulting from the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) and the impact of the 2000 Olympic Games. During 2001-02 and 2002-03 external events such as terrorism and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 'SARS' scare caused a decline in both international visitors to Australia and the willingness of Australians to travel overseas.

21.1 TOURISM SHARE OF GROSS VALUE ADDED AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

Units
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04

Tourism characteristic industries GVA(a)
Travel agency and tour operator services
$m
869
895
992
966
975
962
Taxi transport
$m
195
197
218
207
210
214
Air and water transport
$m
3,309
3,430
3,727
3,592
3,557
3,521
Motor vehicle hiring
$m
259
280
284
287
298
293
Accommodation
$m
2,551
2,644
2,775
2,855
2,917
2,941
Cafes, restaurants and food outlets
$m
2,362
2,454
2,501
2,601
2,689
2,599
Total GVA of tourism characteristic industries(a)
$m
9,546
9,901
10,498
10,509
10,646
10,531
GVA of tourism connected industries(b)
$m
10,795
11,139
11,572
11,769
12,152
12,360
GVA of all other industries(c)
$m
2,714
2,955
2,974
2,973
3,140
3,125
Tourism GVA
$m
23,054
23,994
25,044
25,250
25,939
26,016
Tourism share of GVA
%
4.3
4.2
4.1
3.9
3.8
3.5
Net taxes on tourism products
$m
3,213
3,321
5,817
5,637
6,041
5,935
Tourism GDP
$m
26,267
27,316
30,861
30,887
31,980
31,952
Tourism share of GDP
%
4.5
4.4
4.6
4.3
4.2
3.9

(a) Tourism characteristic industries have at least 25% of their output consumed by visitors.
(b) Tourism connected industries are those industries not classified as characteristic that have products which are consumed by visitors in volumes which are significant.
(c) The share of GVA of all industries that provide outputs to visitors not included in characteristic or connected industries.

Source: Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (5249.0).


TOURISM EMPLOYMENT

The tourism industry employed 536,600 people in 2003-04 (table 21.2). The number of tourism employed people grew 4.6% between 1998-99 and 2003-04, slower than the growth in total employed people (10%) over that period. Consequently, the tourism share of total people employed fell from 5.9% in 1998-99 to 5.6% in 2003-04.

21.2 TOURISM INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT

Units
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04

Tourism characteristic and connected industries(a)
'000
470.4
480.7
497.8
493.3
499.3
494.2
All other industries(b)
'000
42.5
44.0
39.9
40.5
41.5
42.4
Total tourism industry
'000
512.9
524.7
537.7
533.7
540.7
536.6
Total employed persons
'000
8,638.4
8,886.6
9,074.3
9,207.4
9,441.4
9,528.0
Tourism share of total employment
%
5.9
5.9
5.9
5.8
5.7
5.6

(a) Tourism characteristic and connected industries are those industries that have products which are consumed by visitors in volumes which are significant.
(b) The share of GVA of all industries that provide outputs to visitors not included in characteristic or connected industries.

Source: Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (5249.0).


TOURISM CONSUMPTION

Tourism consumption is defined as:

    '...the total consumption made by a visitor or on behalf of a visitor for and during his/her trip and stay at the destination' (Explanatory Notes, Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (5249.0)).

In 2003-04 tourism consumption was largest for long distance passenger transportation (16.5%), followed by shopping (including gifts and souvenirs) (16.0%), takeaway and restaurant meals (14.8%) and accommodation services (9.9%) (table 21.3).

However, there are some marked differences in consumption patterns by type of visitor. Long distance passenger transportation is the dominant tourism product consumed by domestic business and government (41%) and international visitors (26%). In contrast, domestic household visitor consumption is dominated by shopping (including gifts and souvenirs) (20%), and takeaway and restaurant meals (19%).

21.3 SHARE OF TOURISM CONSUMPTION ON SELECTED TOURISM PRODUCTS, By type of visitor - 2003-04

Households
Business/government
International
All visitors
%
%
%
%

Long distance passenger transportation
8.6
40.8
26.2
16.5
Shopping (including gifts and souvenirs)
19.8
0.3
13.2
16.0
Takeaway and restaurant meals
19.0
6.2
7.5
14.8
Accommodation services
6.7
20.6
13.6
9.9
Food products
9.6
0.6
7.0
8.0
Fuel (petrol, diesel)
7.0
15.7
1.2
6.6
Taxi products
0.4
3.1
0.7
0.8
All other tourism products
28.9
12.6
30.5
27.4
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Source: Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (5249.0).


Total tourism consumption declined by 0.4% in 2003-04 after a rise of 3.0% in 2002-03. This reflects a decline in domestic travel consumption, despite an increase in consumption by international visitors. Tourism consumption by domestic households fell from $48 billion (b) to $47b in 2003-04, a decline of 1.8%. Similarly, consumption by business and government fell from $8.4b to $8.3b in 2003-04, a decrease of 1.0%. International visitor consumption rose by 4.0% to $17.3b in 2003-04.


During 2000-01 tourism consumption recorded its strongest growth of 11%. This growth mainly reflects the introduction of the GST and the impact of the 2000 Olympic Games.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN TOURISM

Tourism contributes significantly to Australia's export earnings. In 2003-04, international visitors consumed more than $17b worth of goods and services produced by the Australian economy (table 21.4). This represented 12% of the total exports of goods and services. While tourism exports, also described as international visitor consumption, grew quite strongly between 1998-99 and 2000-01, so did exports of other goods and services between 1999-2000 to 2000-01. However, in 2003-04 tourism exports increased by 4.0% while total exports declined by 3.3%, thus leading to an increase in the tourism share of exports.

21.4 EXPORTS OF TOURISM GOODS AND SERVICES

Units
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04

International visitor consumption
$m
13,445
14,610
17,140
17,107
16,656
17,317
Total exports
$m
112,025
126,222
153,763
153,200
148,293
143,366
Tourism share of exports
%
12.0
11.6
11.1
11.2
11.2
12.1
Growth in international visitor consumption
%
5.1
8.7
17.3
-0.2
-2.6
4.0
Growth in total exports
%
-1.5
12.7
21.8
-0.4
-3.2
-3.3

Source: Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (5249.0).


Previous PageNext Page


Bookmark and Share. Opens in a new window


Commonwealth of Australia 2014

Unless otherwise noted, content on this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia Licence together with any terms, conditions and exclusions as set out in the website Copyright notice. For permission to do anything beyond the scope of this licence and copyright terms contact us.