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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2006  
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Contents >> Chapter 20 - Service industries >> Selected service industries

SELECTED SERVICE INDUSTRIES

The remainder of the chapter presents statistics from retail trade and wholesale trade (with information drawn from monthly and quarterly surveys of businesses), and the 2003-04 surveys of public libraries, museums, cafes and restaurants, and accommodation services (which are part of a rotating program of service collections conducted by the ABS). This rotating program of service collections includes specific surveys each year, with the main focus being the size and structure of individual services in terms of detailed financial information and employment.

RETAIL TRADE

The retail trade industry comprises businesses primarily engaged in the sale of new or used goods to final consumers for personal or household consumption, or in selected repair activities such as repair of household equipment or motor vehicles.

The estimate of retail turnover includes the value of turnover from businesses such as supermarkets, clothing and department stores, as well as hospitality and selected service businesses such as cafes and restaurants, hotels and licensed clubs. It excludes motor vehicle retailing and services. In order to measure the actual expenditure of consumers, retail turnover is recorded from 1 July 2000 inclusive of the Goods and Services Tax.

Table 20.3 presents annual chain volume measures of retail turnover for the period 1993-94 to 2004-05. Total retail turnover (in chain volume terms) increased by 58% between 1993-94 and 2004-05, representing an average annual growth rate of 4%.

The group representing the largest component of retail turnover (in current prices) in 2004-05 was food retailing with 40% of total turnover. The next largest groups were hospitality and services, and household good retailing with a 14% share of total turnover.

Between 2003-04 and 2004-05 the turnover (in chain volume terms) of household good retailing increased by 10%, clothing and soft good retailing by 8%, and recreational good retailing by 5%. Department store retailing turnover also increased by 5%, and food retailing by 3%. Retail turnover for hospitality and services fell by 1%.

20.3 RETAIL TURNOVER, Chain volume measures(a)

Industry group

Food
retailing
Department
stores
Clothing and soft good retailing
Household good
retailing
Recreational good
retailing
Other
retailing
Hospitality
and
services
Retail
turnover(b)
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

1993-94
57,382
11,607
8,497
10,478
6,582
11,164
23,376
126,396
1994-95
60,483
11,972
8,737
11,399
6,941
11,749
25,144
133,689
1995-96
63,359
12,296
8,908
12,317
7,304
12,364
25,409
139,399
1996-97
63,913
12,222
8,782
13,653
6,948
12,895
23,932
140,603
1997-98
66,377
12,573
8,988
14,246
7,099
14,053
24,170
145,818
1998-99
67,882
12,974
10,049
14,713
7,188
14,613
26,154
151,821
1999-2000
69,056
13,746
10,778
17,456
7,273
15,678
27,462
160,383
2000-01
69,566
13,171
10,233
18,581
6,987
16,684
27,485
161,844
2001-02
71,713
13,795
11,035
21,671
7,015
18,158
28,221
171,198
2002-03
74,073
14,634
11,707
24,158
7,188
19,007
29,203
179,783
2003-04
77,101
15,690
12,487
28,128
7,902
20,972
31,239
193,520
2004-05
79,080
16,401
13,482
30,973
8,287
21,261
30,802
200,286

(a) Based on quarterly data. Reference year is 2003-04.
(b) Chain volume measures are not additive for years other than 2003-04 and 2004-05.

Source: Retail Trade, Australia (8501.0).


Graph 20.4 shows annual growth rates for total retail turnover (in chain volume terms) from 1994-95 to 2004-05. During this period the four years with the strongest annual growth were 2003-04 (8%) and 1994-95, 2001-02 and 1999-2000 (6%). The two years of weakest growth occurred in 1996-97 and 2000-01 (1%). Growth in 2000-01 was affected by the unusual increase in the volume of goods sold in the June quarter 2000 prior to the introduction of The New Tax System on 1 July 2000.

Graph 20.4: CHANGE IN ANNUAL RETAIL TURNOVER, Chain volume measures(a) - June


In 2003-04 retail trade industry GVA (in current prices) was $42,585 million (m) or 5.2% of GDP.

WHOLESALE TRADE

The wholesale trade industry covers those businesses involved in the sale of new or used goods to businesses or to institutional (including government) users.

Table 20.5 presents annual chain volume measures of total wholesale trade sales for the period 1993-94 to 2004-05. Total wholesale sales (in chain volume terms) more than doubled between 1993-94 and 2004-05, and increased by 4% between 2003-04 and 2004-05.

In 2003-04 wholesale trade industry GVA (in current prices) was $41,840m, or 5.1% of GDP.

20.5 WHOLESALE SALES, Chain volume measures(a)
$m

1993-94
130,350
1994-95
148,788
1995-96
151,190
1996-97
157,525
1997-98
174,380
1998-99
189,520
1999-2000(b)
212,782
2000-01
215,126
2001-02
229,966
2002-03
244,930
2003-04
266,527
2004-05
275,928

(a) Based on quarterly data. Reference year for chain volume measures is 2003-04.
(b) A break in series occurred between June and September 1999 quarters.

Source: Business Indicators, Australia (5676.0).


PUBLIC LIBRARIES

The ABS conducted a survey of public library operations in respect of 2003-04. The survey included local government libraries, national, state and territory libraries and archival service organisations. Excluded were libraries with restricted access such as those operated by educational institutions (universities and schools), and libraries operated privately by businesses and organisations for internal reference purposes.

At 30 June 2004, there were 532 local government library organisations with 1,716 library locations, 8 national and state library organisations with 17 locations, and 8 national and state archive organisations with 21 locations. During 2003-04, there were 105 million visits to local government, national and state libraries, with visits to local government libraries accounting for 95% of this figure (100 million visits) (table 20.6).

The total library holding stock of these organisations was 53 million books and other library materials at the end of June 2004, of which 39 million were available as lending stock and 14 million as non-lending stock.

In total, 13,282 employees worked for public libraries and archive organisations at the end of June 2004, with 10,606 people (80%) employed by local government libraries. These organisations also had a total of 6,853 people working as volunteers during the month of June 2004.

Total income of the industry in 2003-04 was $948m. The great majority of income was from government funding, which accounted for $879m or 93% of total income. Expenses incurred by the industry totalled $960m, with labour costs of $494m accounting for 51% of all expenses.

20.6 PUBLIC LIBRARIES - 2003-04

Units
Local
government
libraries
National and
state libraries
National and
state archives
Total

Organisations at 30 June
no.
532
8
8
548
Locations at 30 June
no.
1,716
17
21
1,754
Employees at 30 June
no.
10,606
1,865
811
13,282
Volunteers during June
no.
6,315
416
122
6,853
Volunteer hours during June
no.
55,749
3,307
1,886
60,942
Visits to library locations(a)
'000
99,622
5,048
-
104,670
Library holdings at 30 June
Lending stock
'000
38,984.5
-
-
38,984.5
Non-lending stock
'000
2,511.8
11,276.3
-
13,788.2
Total
'000
41,496.3
11,276.3
-
52,772.7
Income
Government funding(b)
$m
521.9
259.4
97.9
879.2
Income from services to clients
$m
18.3
12.0
10.4
40.8
Other income
$m
5.0
22.4
0.7
28.1
Total
$m
545.2
293.7
109.1
948.0
Expenses
Labour costs
$m
340.8
106.9
46.3
494.0
Other expenses
$m
204.4
200.7
60.7
465.8
Total
$m
545.2
307.6
107.0
959.8

(a) During year ended 30 June.
(b) Excludes capital funding.

Source: Public Libraries, Australia, 2003-04 (8561.0).


MUSEUMS

The ABS conducted a survey of organisations engaged in operating museums and art galleries in respect of 2003-04. These organisations were only included if they were open to the general public during 2003-04.

At the end of June 2004, there were 1,329 museum locations operating in Australia, comprising: 160 museums/art galleries; 381 historic properties/sites; 673 social history museums; and 116 other types of museums (table 20.7).

The 1,329 museums contained a total of 55 million artefacts, artworks and museum objects at 30 June 2004, and were visited by 31 million visitors during 2003-04. The majority of admissions were free of charge (66%). A total of $35m was spent on purchases of museum objects and artworks, and 3,405 special exhibitions were held.

At 30 June 2004, there were 7,624 people employed in museums, while during the month of June 2004 there were a large number of volunteers (20,443) assisting with museum operations.

During 2003-04, museums accrued a total of $919m in income. Most of this income was sourced from government funding ($628m or 68%). Fundraising operations provided $89m (10%) and admissions $56m (6%).

Of the $810m incurred in expenses by museums during 2003-04, labour costs were the most significant at $320m (40% of total expenses).

20.7 MUSEUMS - 2003-04

Units
Museums/
art
galleries
Historic
properties/
sites
Social
history
museums
Other
museums
Total

Museum/gallery locations at 30 June
no.
*160
381
673
*116
1,329
Artefacts/art works/museum objects at 30 June
'000
*2,915.5
1,609.8
10,057.2
40,333.0
54,915.5
Special exhibitions held(a)
no.
*1,612
*279
*1,346
*168
3,405
Purchases of museum objects/artworks(a)(b)
$m
28.7
0.5
*4.3
1.1
34.6
Admissions(a)
Paid
'000
*1,546.3
*2,798.9
*4,025.5
2,188.9
10,559.5
Free
'000
*9,934.6
*1,988.3
5,801.0
*2,906.7
*20,630.6
Total
'000
*11 480.9
*4 787.1
9 826.5
*5 095.6
*31 190.1
Employment at 30 June
persons
2,081
1,298
2,434
1,811
7,624
Volunteers during the month of June
persons
*3,125
*4,814
*11,185
*1,318
20,443
Income
Government funding(c)
$m
200.4
47.9
193
186.7
628
Fundraising
$m
62.0
6.8
12.5
7.7
89.0
Admissions
$m
8.8
18.1
*20.2
8.9
55.9
Other
$m
53.7
24.6
33.7
*34.3
146.5
Total
$m
324.9
97.5
259.4
237.6
919.4
Expenses
Labour costs
$m
99.1
39.6
91.5
90.1
320.4
Other
$m
166.4
41.0
138.3
144.2
489.9
Total
$m
265.5
80.6
229.7
234.4
810.3

(a) During year ended 30 June.
(b) Includes current and capital expenditure.
(c) Includes current and capital funding and funding for one-off projects.

Source: Museums, Australia, 2003-04 (8560.0).


In 2003-04, Victoria and New South Wales had similar proportions of total admissions for Australia to museums (31%). The Australian Capital Territory had the next highest proportion, with 11% (graph 20.8).

Graph 20.8: ADMISSIONS TO MUSEUMS(a) - 2003-04



CAFES AND RESTAURANTS

An important component of hospitality services is cafes and restaurants. This includes businesses mainly engaged in operating cafes and restaurants for consumption of meals on the premises, and businesses mainly engaged in catering services. Businesses mainly engaged in takeaway food retailing are excluded.

At 30 June 2004 there were 15,083 businesses in cafes and restaurants services (table 20.9), comprising 5,151 licensed cafes and restaurants; 2,493 licensed and BYO cafes and restaurants; 2,476 BYO cafes and restaurants; and 3,167 unlicensed cafes and restaurants. In addition, there were 1,796 catering businesses.

During 2003-04 cafe and restaurant businesses generated $10,130m in income. Just over half of this income (51%) was generated from sales of meals consumed on the premises. Catering services generated $2,356m (23%) of total income, while sales of beverages accounted for a further $1,666m (16%). Between 1998-99 and 2003-04 income from the sale of liquor and other beverages grew at a higher rate (8% per year) than takings from meals consumed on the premises (5% per year).

Total expenses of businesses during 2003-04 were $9,733m. The two largest expense items were purchases ($3,801m) and labour costs ($3,479m), which represented 39% and 36% respectively of total expenses. Rent of land, buildings and other structures had the highest growth rate of all selected expenses, rising by 11% per year.

Income grew by 7% per year between 1998-99 and 2003-04, while expenditure grew at just over 7% per year for this same period.

During 2003-04, cafes and restaurants services recorded an operating profit before tax of $404m, representing an operating profit margin of 4%. Between 1998-99 and 2003-04 the operating profit before tax grew at an average annual rate of 4% per year. However, the operating profit margin decreased from 5% to 4%.

At 30 June 2004 total employment in cafes and restaurants was 188,103 people, of whom 76,030 (40%) were waiters and waitresses, 41,053 (22%) were qualified and other chefs and cooks, and 33,144 (18%) were kitchen hands. Employment increased by 4% per year between 1998-99 and 2003-04.

20.9 CAFES AND RESTAURANTS
Units
1998-99
2003-04

Businesses at 30 June
Licensed cafes and restaurants
no.
4,197
5,151
Licensed and BYO cafes and restaurants
no.
1,801
2,493
BYO cafes and restaurants
no.
2,668
2,476
Unlicensed cafes and restaurants
no.
2,861
3,167
Catering businesses
no.
1,318
1,796
Total
no.
12,845
15,083
Employment at 30 June
Waiters/waitresses
persons
63,093
76,030
Bar attendants
persons
6,628
8,615
Kitchen hands
persons
25,655
33,144
Managers/supervisors
persons
18,025
22,004
Qualified chefs/cooks
persons
12,204
21,466
Other chefs/cooks
persons
16,689
19,587
Other
persons
9,813
7,257
Total
persons
152,107
188,103
Income
Takings from meals consumed on the premises
$m
3,947.7
5,131.4
Takings from take-away food
$m
444.6
393.6
Takings from beverages
$m
1,117.2
1,666.2
Takings from catering services
$m
1,264.7
2,356.4
Other income
$m
400.0
582.1
Total
$m
7,174.3
10,129.6
Expenses
Labour costs
$m
2,109.4
3,479.1
Purchases
$m
2,917.2
3,800.6
Rent of land, buildings and other structures
$m
504.0
853.7
Other expenses
$m
1,274.6
1,599.8
Total
$m
6,805.2
9,733.2
Operating profit before tax
$m
334.2
*404.4
Operating profit margin
%
4.8
*4.0

Source: Cafes and Restaurants, Australia (8655.0).


ACCOMMODATION SERVICES

The scope of the 2003-04 Accommodation Survey included businesses providing short-term accommodation services such as licensed hotels, motels, serviced apartments, visitor hostels, bed and breakfast establishments, guest houses and holiday homes/flats. It also included businesses providing both short-term and long-term accommodation in holiday parks/caravan parks/camping grounds and student residences (excluding boarding schools).

At 30 June 2004, there were 5,682 accommodation businesses operating in Australia (table 20.10). These businesses had employment of 91,399 people, a decrease of 9% from 30 June 2001 (100,401). This represents an average decline of 3% per year over the period 2000-01 to 2003-04.

During 2003-04, accommodation businesses generated $8,096m in income. Just under two thirds of this income ($5,346m or 66%) was from takings for accommodation. Takings from meals generated $1,224m (15%) of total income, while the sale of liquor and other beverages accounted for a further $524m (6%). Total income of accommodation businesses increased by 2%, or an average 0.7% per year, between 2000-01 and 2003-04. Takings from accommodation increased by 12%, while income from all other activities decreased.

Accommodation businesses incurred expenses of $7,322m during 2003-04. Labour costs ($2,566m) were the highest single expense item, accounting for 35% of total expenses. Purchases of foodstuffs for use in preparing meals accounted for $424m (6%), while purchases of liquor and other beverages totalled $196m (3%). Total expenses increased by 1% over the period 2000-01 to 2003-04.

In 2003-04, the operating profit before tax for accommodation services businesses was $777m, resulting in an operating profit margin of 10%.

20.10 ACCOMMODATION SERVICES

Units
2000-01
2003-04

Businesses at 30 June
no.
5,870
5,682
Employment at 30 June
persons
100,401
91,399
Industry value added
$m
3,616.2
4,165.9
Income
Takings from accommodation
$m
4,791.6
5,346.4
Takings from meals
$m
1,305.1
1,223.8
Sale of liquor and other beverages
$m
591.1
524.0
Other income
$m
1,247.0
1,001.7
Total
$m
7,934.8
8,095.9
Expenses
Labour costs
$m
2,580.1
2,565.9
Purchases of foodstuffs for use in preparing meals
$m
459.8
423.8
Purchases of liquor and other beverages
$m
234.5
195.9
Other expenses
$m
3,983.8
4,136.8
Total
$m
7,258.1
7,322.3
Operating profit before tax
$m
688.2
776.7
Operating profit margin
%
8.3
9.7

Source: Accommodation Services, Australia (8695.0).


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