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2071.0 - Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013  
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This document was added 06/28/2012.



Banner Same-sex couple families

Counts of same-sex couples living together in the same household have been compiled from the Australian Census of Population and Housing since 1996, adding to information about families in Australia. From 1996 to 2006, all people who reported themselves as members of same-sex couples were classified in Census results as de facto partners, even those who described themselves as husbands or wives on the Census form, on the basis that under Australian law they cannot be considered as legally married. Legal marriage, under the Commonwealth Marriage Act (1961) must be between a man and a woman; and under this Act same-sex marriages performed overseas are not recognised as legal marriages. (Endnote 1) For 2011 Census data, a new classification has been developed to retain the relationship of members of same-sex couples as they report it on their Census form – whether as husband/wife or de facto partner (see the Fact Sheet Counts of same-sex couples in the 2011 Census for more information).

In recent years both the States and Territories and the Australian Government have legislated to put same-sex de facto couples on the same basis as opposite-sex de facto couples in many areas, recognising their relationships in matters such as superannuation, taxation, social security, inheritance and support for veterans. (Endnote 2) Some states have also passed Civil Partnership or similar laws which include an opportunity for same-sex couples to register a relationship; same-sex couples are now able to access the Family Court to settle matters when separating; and the Australian Government has agreed to provide necessary paperwork for Australian's wishing to enter a same-sex marriage overseas. (Endnote 3) (Endnote 4) Nevertheless, same-sex marriage advocates are seeking access to legal marriage and legal recognition of same-sex marriages performed overseas.

Most report as de facto partners

In 2011, 33,714 same-sex couples were counted in the Census. Consistent with the legal situation in Australia, the overwhelming majority of same-sex couples were described as de facto partners (96%), while there were 1,338 same-sex couples where one person was described as the husband or wife of the other.

Same-sex couples by relationship as reported 2011
Same-sex couples by relationship as reported -2011


The reasons why people in Australia might report that they are the husband or wife of someone of the same sex cannot be known from Census data but may include having been married in a jurisdiction other than Australia; having registered their relationship under state or territory law; having gone through a ceremony; simply regarding themselves as married; or considering that husband or wife is the term that best describes their relationship.

Increase in couples

The total of 33,714 same-sex couples in 2011 was 32% higher than the number in 2006. Same-sex couples increased both in number and as a proportion of all couples in every Census after 1996, when this information was first compiled. The increases may in part reflect greater willingness by people to identify themselves as same-sex couples in the Census. It could also to some extent reflect an increased awareness that counts of same-sex couples are compiled from the Census – giving more reason to supply this information.

Same-sex couples
Same-sex couples (increase over time)

In 2011, as in previous censuses, more male than female same-sex couples were reported: 17,584 compared with 16,131 or 109 male couples for every 100 female couples. However, the gap between the number of male and female same-sex couples has narrowed since 1996, when there were 137 male couples for every 100 female couples.

Same-sex couples account for a very small proportion of all couple families. They comprised 0.7% in 2011, up from 0.6% in 2006, and more than twice the proportion in 1996 (0.3%). The most recent available data from Censuses of Canada and New Zealand is from 2006, with same-sex couples accounting for 0.6% and 0.7% of couples respectively, similar to the Australian rate. (Results from 2011 for Canada will be available late in 2012; New Zealand's planned 2011 Census was postponed to 2013.) Results for 2011 from Ireland's Census were lower than for Australia – 0.4% of all couples were of the same sex. These three countries, like Australia, recorded substantial increases over their previous Censuses. (Endnote 5)

Same-sex couples as a proportion of all couples
Same-sex couples as a proportion of all couples

There are proportionally more same-sex couples estimated from the Census in the United States than are counted in Australia. In 2011, the US Census Bureau estimated from Census results that 1% of all couple households were same-sex couple households; similar to the latest estimates from the American Community Survey. This is on a slightly different basis than Australian census data, as it does not include same sex couples who are the second or third family in a multi-family household. (Endnote 6)

Age pattern of partners in same-sex couples

While partners in same-sex couple families accounted for 0.7% of all partners, this rate varied considerably by age. They accounted for 1.6% of all partners aged 15–24 years but decreased with age to account for 0.1% of all partners aged 65 years and over. A similar pattern was shown in previous Census years. The higher rates at younger ages could reflect societal change which has made people more likely to identify their homosexuality and also made it easier for them to set up households together.

Partners in same-sex couples as a proportion of all partners(a)
Partners in same-sex couples as a proportion of all partners by age

(a) Excludes usually resident partners who were absent on Census Night.

Although same-sex partners made up a greater proportion of all partners in the 15–24 years age group, the peak age group for numbers of same-sex partners was 35–44 years. About 30% of all people in same-sex partnerships fell in that age group. This was consistent with the peak age for people in Australia to be living together in couples. Almost three quarters of all people aged 35–44 years were living with a partner (74%), compared to only 11% of people aged 15–24 years. Further, the Australian population included more people aged 35–44 years than people aged 15–24 years.

Age distribution of partners 2011

Age distribution of partners - 2011

(a) Excludes usually resident partners who were absent on Census Night.

Partners in same-sex couples were in general younger than partners in opposite-sex couples. Although the numbers of both groups peaked at ages 35–44 years, opposite-sex couples had a much more even age distribution, with substantial numbers in the older age groups.

Since 1996, the populations of both opposite-sex and same-sex partners have aged; the Australian population as a whole also aged over this period. The median age of same-sex partners increased from 35 to 40 years while that of opposite-sex partners increased from 44 to 48 years. Over the same period, the median age for the total population (aged 15 years and over, as counted in the Census) increased from 40 to 44 years.

In 2011, as in previous Censuses, the age distribution of male and female same-sex partners was quite similar. However, female same-sex partners had a slightly younger age profile, with only a small proportion in the oldest age group, and proportionally more in the two youngest age groups.

Age distribution of same-sex partners by sex 2011
Age distribution of same-sex partners by sex

(a) Excludes usually resident partners who were absent on Census Night.

More same-sex couples in capital cities

In each State but not in the Northern Territory, same-sex couples accounted for a greater proportion of couples in the capital cities than of couples living outside the capital cities. For example, same-sex couples accounted for 0.6% of all couples in Perth compared with 0.3% of all couples in the balance of Western Australia. In Australia as a whole, same-sex couples accounted for 0.9% of all couples in the capital cities, compared with 0.5% of all couples in the balance of the States and Territories. Among the capital cities, the proportion of same-sex couples was highest for Sydney and Canberra (both 1.1%) and lowest for Perth and Adelaide (both 0.6%).

SAME-SEX COUPLES 2011(a)

Number
Proportion(%)(b)


State or Territory
Greater capital city(a)
Balance of State
Total
Greater capital city(a)
Balance of State
Total

NSW
10 032
2 699
12 731
1.1
0.5
0.8
Vic.
7 427
1 302
8 729
0.9
0.4
0.7
Qld
3 663
2 324
5 987
0.8
0.5
0.6
SA
1 694
235
1 929
0.6
0.3
0.5
WA
2 220
357
2577
0.6
0.3
0.5
Tas.
349
256
605
0.8
0.4
0.6
NT
169
116
285
0.7
0.8
0.7
ACT(c)
871
..
871
1.1
..
1.1
Australia
26 425
7 289(d)
33 714
0.9
0.5
0.7

(a) Greater Capital Cities Statistical Areas in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS). They are based on a broad economic definition of capital cities and incorporate some areas on the fringes of cities which were not included in previous classifications. Capital cities in this table may therefore be defined differently than in published data from previous Censuses.
(b) Same-sex couples as a proportion of all couples.
(c) The whole of the ACT is classified as a Greater Capital City Statistical Area.
(d) Includes Other Territories.


In the larger capital cities, inner city areas had notably higher proportions of same-sex couples than other parts of the city. In Sydney, same-sex couples accounted for a higher proportion of all couples in the local government areas of Sydney (11.3%), Marrickville (7.4%), Leichhardt (3.5%) and Woollahra (2.7%). In Melbourne, the local government areas with the highest proportions were Yarra (4.4%), Port Phillip (3.9%), Melbourne (3.8%), Maribyrnong (2.8%) and Stonnington (2.7%).

Some areas outside greater capital cities had relatively high rates of same-sex couples (compared with other areas outside capital cities). For example, in New South Wales same-sex couples accounted for 1.5% of all couples in the local government area of Byron, 1.3% in Lismore, 1.2 % in Bellingen and 1.1% in Newcastle. In Victoria, same-sex couples accounted for 3.6% of all couples in the local government area of Hepburn and 1.5% of those in Mount Alexander.

Families and children

Like the great majority of Australian families (96%), most same-sex couples lived in single family households (99%).

Most same-sex couples lived together without children or other relatives in their family. This was the living arrangement of 86% of same-sex couples. It was more common for male than female same-sex couples (95% compared with 75%). A further small proportion of same-sex couples had no children living with them but had other relatives living with them (2.3%). Most of these other relatives were a sibling or parent of one of the partners (81%).

Just over one in ten same-sex couples had children (of any age including adults) living with them in their family (12%). It was much more common for female than male same-sex couples to have children living in the family (22% compared with 3%). Children in same-sex couples may come from a previous opposite-sex relationship of one of the partners or may have been conceived (often with assisted reproductive technology), adopted or fostered in a same-sex relationship. (Endnote 7)

Same-sex couples with children on average had fewer children living with them in their family than opposite-sex couples. Well over half of male and female same-sex couples with children had only one child in the family (59% and 52% respectively) while one third had two children. In contrast, opposite sex couples were more likely to have two children than one child in their family (42% compared with 36%).

In total, there were 6,120 children under 25 years in same-sex couple families. Of these, 78% were children under 15 years of age, 14% were dependent students, and 8% were non-dependent children aged 15–24 years. Children in same-sex couple families accounted for 0.1% of all dependent children in families.

CHILDREN(a) UNDER 25 YEARS IN SAME-SEX COUPLE FAMILIES 2011

Male same-sex couples
Female same-sex couples
Total same-sex couples
no.
no.
no
%

Dependent children
569
5 036
5 605
91.6
    Aged under 15 years
462
4 288
4 750
77.6
    Dependent students(b)
107
748
855
14.0
Non-dependent children(c)
89
426
515
8.4
Total
658
5 462
6 120
100.00

(a) People whose relationship in household is natural or adopted child, step child, foster child, otherwise related child under 15 years and unrelated children under 15 years.
(b) Dependent students are children aged 1524 years of age in full-time education.
(c) Non-dependent children are aged 15 years and over and not in full-time education.


The Census does not collect information on people's sexual orientation. Therefore information from the Census does not provide a complete picture of families consisting of lesbians or gay men and their children. Lesbians or gay men who are lone parents are not identified in Census data although they would be included in the total counts of lone parents. Other aspects of parenting such as parents who are not usually resident in the same household as the child are not captured in the Census.

Cultural characteristics

In 2011, about 120,200 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were living with a partner, and of these 0.9% (about 1,100 people) were living with a partner of the same sex. In comparison, of the 8.9 million non-Indigenous people living with a partner, 0.7% lived with a partner of the same sex. However, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population has a much younger age profile than the non-Indigenous population and if adjustments are made for these age differences, a greater proportion of non-Indigenous than Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander partners were partnered with someone of the same sex.

Most Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living with a partner of the same sex lived in capital cities (59%). This was in sharp contrast to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living with opposite-sex partners, 31% of whom lived in capital cities. However, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living with a partner of the same sex were less strongly concentrated in capital cities than were non-Indigenous people living with a partner of the same-sex (79%). The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population as a whole is distributed differently from the non-Indigenous population, with proportionally more people living in regional and remote areas.

A sizeable majority of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in same-sex couples were partnered with a non-Indigenous person (82%). This compared with 58% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in opposite-sex couples.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people accounted for 1.7% of people in same-sex partnerships. As many were partnered with a non-Indigenous person, 2.9% of all same-sex couples included at least one Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander partner.

Of people born overseas who were living with a partner, 0.6% were living with a partner of the same sex (0.7% for overseas-born men and 0.5% for overseas-born women). Of people born in Australia, 0.8% of men and 0.8% of women were living with a partner of the same sex. There were differences between people born in different countries. For example, of the six leading birthplaces for overseas-born people living in couples, partners born in New Zealand and England were more likely to be living with someone of the same sex (1.1% and 0.7% respectively) than partners born in China (excludes SARs and Taiwan) (0.4%), Vietnam (0.3%), Italy (0.2%) or India ( 0.1%). Of overseas-born people who were in a same-sex partnership, 54% were living with an Australian-born person and 46% with another overseas-born person.

Of second generation Australians living with a partner, 0.8% were living with a person of the same sex, the same proportion as for Australian-born people with Australian-born parents.

Of all same-sex partners, 29% were born overseas and 19% were second generation Australians. This compared with 34% and 16% respectively for opposite-sex partners.

In line with the lower proportion born overseas, same-sex couple partners were more likely to speak only English in the home than opposite-sex couple partners (88% compared with 79%).

Religious affiliations of partners(a) 2011
Religious affiliations of partners - 2011

(a) Excludes usually resident partners who were absent on Census Night.
(b) People who did not answer the question and people whose response was given a supplementary code.

In response to the Census question about religion, same-sex couple partners were most likely to report having no religion (48%), followed by Christianity (40%). This contrasted with opposite sex couples, for whom Christianity was the leading affiliation (67%) followed by having no religion (21%).

Compared with partners in opposite-sex couples, same-sex partners were more likely to be affiliated with Buddhism (4.0% compared with 2.6%) and less likely to be affiliated with Hinduism (0.3% compared with 1.6%) or Islam (0.6% compared with 2.1%).

Religious affiliation varies strongly by age in Australia, with younger age groups more likely to have no religion and less likely to be affiliated to Christianity compared with older age groups. (Endnote 8)

RELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONS OF PARTNERS(a) - 2011

Partners in same-sex couples
Partners in opposite-sex couples
%
%

Buddhism
4.0
2.6
Christianity
39.9
67.0
Hinduism
0.3
1.6
Islam
0.6
2.1
Judaism
0.6
0.5
Other religion
1.3
0.8
No religion
48.2
20.7
Not stated/
supplementary codes(b)
5.0
4.6
Total
100.0
100.0

(a) Excludes usually resident partners who were absent on Census Night.
(b) People who did not answer the question and people whose response was given a supplementary code.


Explanatory Notes

This article presents information on the number and characteristics of people in same-sex couple relationships who lived together in the same private dwelling, as reported in the 2011 Australian Census of Population and Housing, together with some information on trends since the 1996 Census.

In this article counts of 'same-sex couples' are counts of the family unit while counts of 'partners in same-sex couples', are counts of individuals. About 33,700 same-sex couples, consisting of about 67,400 partners in same-sex couples, were counted in the 2011 Census.

Numbers: how are same-sex couples counted in Census data?

Same-sex couples and other types of families and households in private dwellings were classified in Census data through answers to Question 5 on the 2011 Census Household Form which asks each persons relationship to Person 1 (the household reference person) and/or Person 2. For Person 2, this question (Question 5) includes the tick box options 'Husband or wife' and 'De facto partner'. Question 3 on the Census Household Form 'Is this person male or female?' is also relevant as this will determine whether two people are classified as an opposite-sex or same-sex couple. The household relationship of people temporarily absent is recorded on question 53 of the form and this information is also used to identify family relationships. Very similar questions are present on the 2011 Interviewer Household form, used in some discrete Indigenous communities, although numbered differently.

Image of section of 2011 Census Household Form
Extracts from 2011 Census Household Form showing the part of Question 5 answered by Persons 1, 2 and 3. (The question format for Persons 4 onwards is the same as for person 3).

A separate question on each person's registered marital status is included on the 2011 Census Household Form but this is not used to classify people into families. This is because people's registered marital status may or may not relate to a person they are living with.

With some exceptions, the Census is filled in by people in the household, not by trained interviewers. Marking an incorrect box in answer to Question 5 could result in people being incorrectly included or excluded from the count of couples, while marking an incorrect box for Question 3 about the sex of each person could result in couples being incorrectly assigned to either same-sex or opposite-sex couples. Given that there are many more opposite-sex couples than same-sex couples, a small rate of error among opposite-sex couples could have a large proportional effect on same-sex couple estimates. There are editing procedures to identify and correct such errors wherever possible but it is not possible to identify and eliminate all errors.

Complex and multi-family households

In the Census, data on different types of families and households is mainly derived from the relationship questions (Questions 5 and 53 on the Census household form), which ask for each persons’s relationship to Person 1 on the form.

For many households, identifying the family structure of the dwelling is quite straightforward. However, reporting relationships in respect of Person 1 only, can make it difficult to establish all the relationships which exist in a household, or to identify whether more than one family is living in the dwelling.

Characteristics of same-sex couple partners

This article is based on the first release of 2011 Census data. Second release Census data, which includes topics such as occupation, level and field of highest qualification and labour force status will be released in October 2012. A list of first and second release variables can be found in the Classifications index in the Census Dictionary, 2011 (cat. no. 2901.0).

Many of the characteristics discussed in respect of partners in this article may be interrelated, and also related to other characteristics such as highest educational qualification, which were not available at time of release. For example, religious affiliation is known to vary according to education and age, and same-sex and opposite-sex couples differ, on average, in respect of education and age. The data in the article is presented on a crude basis (i.e. as reported) rather than with adjustments for age or other differences which may influence characteristics. This is because the main approach of the article is to provide a real-world view of the number and characteristics of couples, not to examine and attempt to quantify the various social and demographic influences which may explain any differences between same-sex couples and opposite-sex couples.

Of same-sex partners counted on Census Night, 96.4% were at home on Census Night, while the remaining 3.6% were recorded on the Census form at their usual dwelling as usual residents who are temporarily absent. Information on the characteristics of same-sex couples presented here is based on those partners at home on Census Night, as most data is not collected for people temporarily absent.

Calculation of proportions

Calculation occurs after 'not stateds' (i.e. where the relevant question was not answered on the Census form) have been removed from the denominator. Information regarding religion is an exception. As the religion question is voluntary, 'not stated' is regarded as a bona fide response and is included in the denominator.

Key definitions
see Census Dictionary, 2011 (cat. no. 2901.0) for definitions of other terms.

Same-sex couples – Two persons of the same-sex who report a de facto or married partnership in the relationship question on the Census form, and who are usually resident in the same household.

See 'Numbers: how are same-sex couples counted in Census data?' in the Explanatory Notes box above for more information on how people are classified as same-sex couples.

Couples Two persons who report a de facto or married partnership in the relationship question on the Census form, and who are usually resident in the same household.

Families – A family is defined by the ABS as two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering, and who are usually resident in the same household.

Each separately identified couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship forms the basis of a family. Some households contain more than one family.

Non-related persons living in the same household are not counted as family members (unless under 15 years of age).

Other related individuals (brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles) may be present in the household. If more than one family is present these people can only be associated with the primary family.

Visiting families are not included as part of the household, and the relationships of other visitors are not coded. A household containing only a visiting family (e.g. a family at a holiday home) is coded to a household type of visitors only.

Where all persons present are aged under 15 years, or where information for each person has been imputed, the household is deemed not classifiable to a family. Of people listed as temporarily absent, only spouse(s) and family children are used in coding family composition.

Child – A person of any age whose relationship in the household is natural, adopted, step or foster child, or whose relationship in the household is otherwise related child under 15 years, or unrelated child under 15 years. In order to be classified as 'child' a person cannot have a partner or spouse of their own usually resident in the household.

Dependent student – A child (see child above) who is aged 15–24 years and in full-time education.

Non-dependent child – A child (see child above) who is aged 15 years and over and not in full-time education.

Capital cities – In this article the term 'capital cities' refers to Greater Capital Cities Statistical Areas. These areas are based on a broad economic definition of capital cities and incorporate some areas on the fringes of cities which were not included in previous classifications. Capital cities in this article may therefore be defined differently than in published data from previous Censuses. Further information on Greater Capital Cities Statistical Areas can be found in Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001).

Geographic classifications Classifications used in this article are from the Australian Statistical Geography Standard.

Median age – In census data, median age is calculated using data in whole years. The median age is the age which divides the population into two equal parts.

Second generation Australians – Australian-born people living in Australia, with at least one overseas-born parent.

Endnotes

1. Marriage Legislation Amendment Bill 2004 (Cwlth); Marriage Act 1961 (Cwlth).2. Property (Relationships) Legislation Amendment Act 1999 (NSW); Miscellaneous Acts Amendment (Same Sex Relationships) Act 2008 (NSW); Statute Law Amendment (Relationships) Act 2001 (Vic.); Discrimination Law Amendment Act 2002 (Qld); Industrial Relations Act 1999 (Qld); Family Relationships Act 1975 (SA); Statutes Amendment (Domestic Partners) Act 2006 (SA); Acts Amendment (Lesbian and Gay Law Reform) Act 2002 (WA); Law Reform (Gender, Sexuality and De Facto Relationships) Act 2004 (NT); Domestic Relationships Act 1994 (ACT); Civil Partnerships Amendment Act 2009 (ACT); Same-Sex Relationships (Equal Treatment in Commonwealth Laws - General Law Reform Act 2008 (Cwlth); Same-Sex Relationships (Equal Treatment in Commonwealth Laws - Superannuation) Act 2008 (Cwlth); Same-Sex Relationships (Equal Treatment in Commonwealth Laws - General Law Reform) (Child Support) Regulations 2009 (Cwlth); Australian Government. Attorney-General's department 'Same-sex Reforms' <www.ag.gov.au> viewed 26 Aug 2011.
3. Domestic Relationships Act 1994 (ACT); Civil Partnership Act 2008 (ACT); Relationships Register Act 2010 (NSW); Relationships Act 2003 (Tas.); Relationships Act 2008 (Vic.); Civil Partnerships Act 2011 (Qld). 4. The Hon Nicola Roxon MP (Attorney General for Australia) 2012, 'Certificates of No Impediment to marriage for same-sex couples', media release, Attorney General's Office, 27 January 2012, viewed 24/05/2012 <www.attorneygeneral.gov.au>.
5. Statistics Canada c. 2007, Family portrait: continuity and change in Canadian families and households in 2006, 2006 Census by Anne Milan, Mireille Vezina, Carrie Hall. Demography Division <www.statcan.gc.ca> viewed 15 Nov 2011; Statistics New Zealand 2010, Characteristics of Same-sex Couples in New Zealand <www.stats.govt.nz> viewed 7 Sep 2011; Ireland Central Statistics Office 2012, This is Ireland, Highlights from Census 2011, Part 1 < www.cso.ie > viewed 19/04/2012 pp 26-27.
6. US Census Bureau 2012, Households and Families: 2010 <www.census.gov> viewed 25 May 2012; Martin O'Connell and Sarah Feliz 2011, Same-sex Couple Household Statistics from the 2010 Census (SEHSD Working Paper Number 2011-26), Fertility and Family Statistics Branch Social, Economic and Housing Statistics, U.S. Bureau of the Census <www.census.gov> viewed 28 Sep 2011 p. 27; US Census Bureau 27 Sep 2011, 'Census Bureau Releases Estimates of Same-Sex Married Couples' Media release <www.census.gov> viewed 28 Sep 2011.
7. Elizabeth Short, Damien W Riggs, Amaryll Perlesz, Rhonda Brown and Graeme Kane and The Australian Psychological Society Ltd 2007, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Parented Families; a literature review prepared for the Australian Psychological Society <www.psychology.org.au> viewed 11/11/211 p. 4; Jenni Millbank 2003, 'From Here to Maternity: A Review of the Research on Lesbian and Gay Families’, Australian Journal of Social Issues v.38 no 4 pp 549- 551; Ruth McNair, Deborah Dempsey, Sarah Wise and Amaryll Perlesz 2002, 'Lesbian Parenting: Issues, strengths and challenges' Family Matters No 63, Australian Institute of Family Studies <www.aifs.gov.au>.
8. Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, 'Religion across the generations' in A Picture of the Nation: the Statistician's Report on the 2006 Census (cat. no. 2070.0), Canberra.

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