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3412.0 - Migration, Australia, 2006-07 Quality Declaration 
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GLOSSARY

12/12 month rule


A method for measuring an overseas traveller's duration of stay or absence in which the 12 month usual residence criterion in population estimates is measured across a 12 month period. Under a 12/12 month rule, overseas travellers must be resident in Australia for a continuous 12 month period or more to be included in the estimated resident population. Similarly, Australian residents travelling overseas must be absent from Australia for a continuous 12 month period or more to be removed from the estimated resident population.


12/16 month rule


A method for measuring an overseas traveller's duration of stay or absence which takes an approach to measure usual residence that does not have to be continuous, as opposed to the continuous approach used under a 12/12 month rule. Under a 12/16 month rule, overseas travellers must have been resident in Australia for a total period of 12 months or more, during the 16 month follow-up period to be included in he estimated resident population.


The 12/16 month rule therefore takes account of those persons who may have left Australia briefly and returned, while still being resident for 12 months out of 16. Similarly, it takes account of Australians who live most of the time overseas but periodically return to Australia for short periods.


Australian resident


For purposes of the estimated resident population, a person is regarded as a usual resident if they have been (or are expected to be) residing in Australia for a period of 12 months or more. This includes all people, regardless of nationality or citizenship, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months. As from 1 July 2006 this 12 months does not have to be continuous and is measured over a 16 month reference period.


Category jumping


Category jumping was the term used to describe changes between intended and actual duration of stay of travellers to/from Australia, such that their classification as short-term or as long-term/permanent movers is different at arrival/departure from that after 12 months. For more information see Chapter 6 'Special article: Adjustments to overseas migration estimates' from Migration, Australia, 2002-03, (cat. no. 3412.0).


Category jumping was the name given to the adjustment made to the components of net overseas migration, when these were applied, up until the year ending 30 June 1996. Category jumping was set to zero for the years ending 30 June 1997 to 2001. With the interim method of adjusting these components, this adjustment is now known as 'migration adjustment'.


Category of movement


Overseas arrivals and departures are classified according to length of stay (in Australia or overseas), recorded in months and days by travellers on passenger cards. There are three main categories of movement:

  • permanent movements
  • long-term movements (one year or more)
  • short-term movements (less than one year).

A significant number of travellers (i.e. overseas visitors to Australia on arrival and Australian residents going abroad) state exactly 12 months or one year as their intended period of stay. Many of them stay for less than that period and on their departure from, or return to, Australia are therefore classified as short-term. Accordingly, in an attempt to maintain consistency between arrivals and departures, movements of travellers who report their actual or intended period of stay as being one year exactly are randomly allocated to long-term or short-term in proportion to the number of movements of travellers who report their actual length of stay as up to one month more, or one month less, than one year.


Census


The complete enumeration of a population or groups at a point in time with respect to well-defined characteristics (e.g. Population, Manufacturing, etc.). When the word is capitalised, "Census" usually refers to the national Census of Population and Housing.


Emigration


The process of leaving one country to take up permanent or semi-permanent residence in another.


Estimated resident population (ERP)


The official measure of the population of Australia is based on the concept of usual residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality or citizenship, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months. As from 1 July 2006 this 12 months does not have to be continuous and is measured over a 16 month reference period.


Estimates of the Australian resident population are generated on a quarterly basis by adding natural increase (the excess of births over deaths) and net overseas migration (NOM) occurring during the period to the population at the beginning of each period. This is known as the cohort component method, and can be represented by the following equation:


Pt+1 = Pt + B - D + NOM, where:

      Pt= the estimated resident population at time point t
      Pt+1 = the estimated resident population at time point t+1
      B = the number of births occurring between t and t+1
      D = the number of deaths occurring between t and t+1
      NOM = net overseas migration occurring between t and t+1.

For state and territory population estimates, an additional term is added to the equation representing net interstate migration (NIM) occurring between t and t+1, represented by the following equation:


Pt+1 = Pt+ B - D + NOM + NIM.


Family stream


Those categories of the Migration Program where the core eligibility criteria are based on a close family relationship with an Australian citizen or permanent resident sponsor. The immediate accompanying families of principal applicants in the family stream (e.g. children of spouses) are also counted as part of the family stream.


This definition of family stream is used by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) who administer the Migration Program.


Humanitarian Program


The Humanitarian Program provides protection to refugees and resettlement to those for whom it may be the appropriate durable solution. The Humanitarian Program is administered by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC).


Intercensal discrepancy


Intercensal discrepancy is the difference between two estimates at 30 June of a census year population, the first based on the latest census and the second arrived at by updating the 30 June estimate of the previous census date estimate with intercensal components of population change which take account of information available from the latest census. It is caused by errors in the start and/or finish population estimates and/or in estimates of births, deaths or migration in the intervening period which cannot be attributed to a particular source.


Immigration


The process of entering one country from another to take up permanent or semi-permanent residence.


Long-term arrivals


Long-term arrivals comprise:

  • overseas migrants (comprising visitors and temporary entrants) who stay in Australia for 12 months or more (but not permanently); and
  • Australian residents returning from overseas after an absence of 12 months or more.

When using the current method for estimating net overseas migration this term is then based on a travellers'
actual
duration of stay using the 12/16 rule.


Long-term departures


Long-term departures comprise:

  • Australian residents who stay abroad for 12 months or more (but not permanently); and
  • overseas migrants departing Australia who stay away 12 months or more.

When using the current method for estimating net overseas migration this term is then based on a travellers'
actual
duration of absence using the 12/16 rule.


Main state or territory of stay


Overseas visitors are asked on departure for the name of the state or territory in which they spent the most time. This differs from 'State or territory of clearance' which is available on request.


Median age


For any distribution the median age is that age which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Where the age for a particular record has not been stated, that record is excluded from the calculation.


Migration


The movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing a new or semi-permanent residence. Migration can be international (migration between countries) and internal (migration within a country).


Migration adjustment


The ABS applies a number of adjustments to overseas arrivals and departures (OAD) data in order to produce estimates of net overseas migration (NOM). These mainly comprise adjustments designed to reflect differences between stated travel intentions and actual travel behaviour, but also include adjustments to transform numbers of overseas movements into numbers of travellers. These adjustments are collectively referred to as 'migration adjustments', although they have been referred to in the past as 'category jumping' adjustments.


Migration Program


The annual planned (non-Humanitarian) permanent intake administrated by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) which regulates the number of visas granted for permanent entry from offshore and for permanent resident status onshore. It does not include New Zealand citizens, Australian citizens returning after permanently departing, residents of external territories such as Norfolk Island, and persons granted Australian citizenship overseas.


Mobility


The geographic movement of people.


Natural increase


Excess of births over deaths.


Net interstate migration (NIM)


Net interstate migration is the net gain or loss of population though interstate migration being the change of a person's place of usual residence from one state or territory to another state or territory.


Net overseas migration (NOM)


Net overseas migration is the net gain or loss of population through immigration to Australia and emigration from Australia. It is:

  • based on an international travellers' duration of stay being in or out of Australia for 12 months or more;
  • the difference between the number of incoming travellers who stay in Australia for 12 months or more and are added to the population (NOM arrivals) and the number of outgoing travellers who leave Australia for 12 months or more and are subtracted from the population (NOM departures).

When using the current method for estimating net overseas migration this term is then based on a travellers'
actual
duration of stay or absence using the 12/16 rule.


NOM arrivals


NOM arrivals are all overseas arrivals that contribute to net overseas migration (NOM). It is the number of incoming international travellers who stay in Australia for 12 months or more and are added to the population.


When using the current method for estimating net overseas migration this term is then based on a travellers'
actual
duration of stay using the 12/16 rule.


NOM departures


NOM departures are all overseas departures that contribute to net overseas migration (NOM). It is the number of outgoing international travellers (Australian residents) who leave Australia for 12 months or more and are subtracted from the population.


When using the current method for estimating net overseas migration this term is then based on a travellers'
actual
duration of absence using the 12/16 rule.


Other territories


Following the 1992 amendments to the Acts Interpretation Act to include the Indian Ocean Territories of Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands as part of geographic Australia, another category of the state and territory level was created, known as Other Territories. Other Territories include Jervis Bay Territory, previously included with the Australian Capital Territory, Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.


Overseas arrivals and departures (OAD)


Overseas arrivals and departures (OAD) refer to the recorded arrival or departure of persons through Australian airports (or sea ports). Statistics on OAD relate to the number of movements of travellers rather than the number of travellers (i.e. the multiple movements of individual persons during a given reference period are all counted).


Permanent arrivals


Permanent arrivals (settlers) comprise:

  • travellers who hold migrant visas (regardless of stated intended period of stay);
  • New Zealand citizens who indicate an intention to migrate permanently; and
  • those who are otherwise eligible to settle (e.g. overseas-born children of Australian citizens).

Permanent departures


Permanent departures are:

  • Australian residents (including former settlers) who on departure state that they are departing permanently.

Place of usual residence


This is the place where a person usually lives. It may, or may not be the place where the person was counted on Census night. Census counts compiled on this basis are less likely to be influenced by seasonal factors such as school holidays and snow seasons, and provide information about the usual residents of an area. Census usual residence counts form the basis of the estimated resident population (ERP).


Population growth


For Australia, population growth is the sum of natural increase and net overseas migration. For states and territories, population growth also includes net interstate migration. After the Census, intercensal population growth also includes an allowance for intercensal discrepancy.


Population growth rate


Population change over a period as a proportion (percentage) of the population at the beginning of the period.


Population turnover


Population turnover is the sum of interstate arrivals and departures during a year expressed as a proportion of the resident population of the state or territory at the beginning of a time period. Population turnover can also incorporate overseas arrivals and departures (as used for net overseas migration estimates) to and from each state or territory during a year.


Return migration


Return migration is the emigration of former settlers to their country of birth.


Sex ratio


The sex ratio relates to the number of males per 100 females.


Short-term arrivals


Short-term arrivals comprise:

  • overseas visitors/migrants who stay in Australia for less than 12 months; and
  • Australian residents returning from overseas after an absence of less than 12 months.

When using the current method for estimating net overseas migration this term is then based on a travellers'
actual
duration of stay using the 12/16 rule.


Short-term departures


Short-term departures comprises:

  • Australian residents who stay abroad for less than 12 months; and
  • overseas visitors/migrants departing Australia who stay away less than 12 months.

When using the current method for estimating net overseas migration this term is then based on a travellers'
actual
duration of absence using the 12/16 rule.


Skill stream


Those categories of the Migration Program where the core eligibility criteria are based on the applicant's employability or capacity to invest and/or do business in Australia. The immediate accompanying families of principal applicants in the skill stream are also counted as part of the skill stream.


This definition of skill stream is used by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) who administer the Migration Program.


State or territory of clearance


State or territory of clearance refers to the state or territory in which a passenger is cleared by Customs and Immigration authorities. Embarkation or disembarkation and clearance are usually, but not necessarily, in the same state or territory.


State or territory of intended address/where lived


Overseas visitors are asked on arrival in Australia for their state or territory of intended address. On departure from Australia overseas visitors are asked the state or territory where they spent most time.


Australian residents are asked on departure for the state or territory in which they live/lived. Residents returning to Australia are asked for their state or territory of intended address.


State or territory of intended stay


See State or territory of intended address/where lived.


State or territory of usual residence


State or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory of usual residence of the estimated resident population.


In the case of overseas movements, state or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory regarded by the traveller as the one in which he/she lives or has lived. State or territory of intended residence is derived from the intended address given by settlers, and by Australian residents returning after a journey abroad. Particularly in the case of the former, this information does not necessarily relate to the state or territory in which the traveller will eventually establish a permanent residence.


State or territory where spent most time


See Main state or territory of stay.


Step migration


Step migration is the emigration of former settlers to a country other than their country of birth.


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