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3302.0 - Deaths, Australia, 2011 Quality Declaration 
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 08/11/2012   
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GLOSSARY

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander death

The death of a person who is recorded as being an Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander, or both on the Death Registration Form (DRF). From 2007, Indigenous status for deaths registered in South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory is also derived from the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death (MCCD).

Age-specific death rate

Age-specific death rates (ASDRs) are the number of deaths (occurred or registered) during the calendar year, at a specified age, per 1,000 of the estimated resident population of the same age at the mid-point of the year (30 June). Pro rata adjustment is made in respect of deaths for which the age of the deceased is not given.

Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC)

The ASGC was the geographical framework formerly used by the ABS for the collection and dissemination of geographically classified statistics. From 1 July 2011 the ASGC has been replaced with the Australian Statistical Geography Standard as the framework for understanding and interpreting the geographical context of ABS statistics, however some statistics will continue to be prepared and disseminated based on ASGC over a transition period.

For more information, please refer to Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0).

Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS)

The ASGS brings together all the regions for which the ABS publishes statistics within the one framework and will be used by the ABS for the collection and dissemination of geographically classified statistics from 1 July 2011. It is the current framework for understanding and interpreting the geographical context of statistics published by the ABS.

For more information, please refer to Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001).

Balance of state or territory

The aggregation of all Statistical Divisions (SDs) within a state or territory other than its Capital City SD.

For more information, please refer to Major Statistical Region in Australian Statistical Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0).

Collection District (CD)

Until the 2006 Census, the smallest geographical area for which census data were available. From 2011, CDs have been replaced with Statistical Areas Level 1.

Country of birth

The classification of countries used is the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC).

For more information, please refer to Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) (cat. no. 1269.0).

Crude death rate

The crude death rate (CDR) is the number of deaths registered during the calendar year per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June. For years prior to 1992, the crude death rate was based on the mean estimated resident population for the calendar year.

Death

Death is the permanent disappearance of all evidence of life after birth has taken place. The definition excludes all deaths prior to live birth. For the purposes of the ABS Death Registration collection, a death refers to any death which occurs in, or en route to Australia and is registered with a state or territory Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages.

Estimated resident population (ERP)

The official measure of the population of Australia is based on the concept of usual residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality, citizenship or legal status, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months.

External territories

Australian external territories include Australian Antarctic Territory, Coral Sea Islands Territory, Norfolk Island, Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands, and Territory of Heard and McDonald Islands.

Indirect standardised death rate (ISDR)

See Standardised death rate (SDR).

Infant death

An infant death is the death of a live-born child who dies before reaching his/her first birthday.

Infant mortality rate (IMR)

The number of deaths of children under one year of age in a specified period per 1,000 live births in the same period.

Intercensal discrepancy

Intercensal discrepancy is the difference between two estimates at 30 June of a census year population: the first based on the latest census and the second arrived at by updating the 30 June estimate of the previous census year with intercensal components of population change which take account of information available from the latest census. It is caused by errors in the start and/or finish population estimates and/or in estimates of births, deaths or migration in the intervening period which cannot be attributed to a particular source.

For more information, please refer to Population Estimates: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2009 (cat. no. 3228.0.55.001).

Life expectancy

Life expectancy refers to the average number of additional years a person of a given age and sex might expect to live if the age-specific death rates of the given period continued throughout his/her lifetime.

Life table

A life table is a tabular, numerical representation of mortality and survivorship of a cohort of births at each age of life. The conventional life table is based on the assumption that as the cohort passes through life it experiences mortality at each age in accordance with a predetermined pattern of mortality rates which do not change from year to year. The life table thus constitutes a hypothetical model of mortality, and even though it is usually based upon death rates from a real population during a particular period of time, it does not describe the real mortality which characterises a cohort as it ages.

Due to differences in mortality patterns between males and females at different ages, life tables are generally constructed separately for each sex.

Live birth

A live birth is the birth of a child who, after delivery, breathes or shows any other evidence of life such as a heartbeat.

Local Government Area (LGA)

An ABS approximation of an officially gazetted LGA as defined by each state and territory local government department. LGAs cover incorporated areas of Australia, which are legally designated areas for which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility. The major areas of Australia not administered by incorporated bodies are the northern parts of South Australia and all of the Australian Capital Territory and the Other Territories. These regions are identified as 'Unincorporated' in the ABS LGA structure.

For more information, please refer to Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 3 - Non ABS Structures, July, 2012 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.003).

Marital status

Two separate concepts are measured by the ABS. These are registered marital status and social marital status.

Registered marital status refers to formally registered marriages and divorces. Registered marital status is a person's relationship status in terms of whether he or she has, or has had, a registered marriage with another person. Accordingly, people are classified as either 'never married', 'married', 'widowed', or 'divorced'. Statistics included in this publication are based on registered marital status.

Social marital status is the relationship status of an individual with reference to another person who is usually resident in the household. A marriage exists when two people live together as husband and wife, or partners, regardless of whether the marriage is formalised through registration. Individuals are, therefore, regarded as married if they are in a de facto marriage, or if they are living with the person to whom they are registered as married. Under social marital status, a person is classified as either 'married' or 'not married' with further disaggregation of 'married' to distinguish 'registered married' from 'de facto married'.

Median value

For any distribution the median value (age, duration, interval) is that value which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Where the value for a particular record has not been stated, that record is excluded from the calculation.

Mortality

Death.

Natural increase

Excess of births over deaths.

Other Territories

Following the 1992 amendments to the Acts Interpretation Act to include the Indian Ocean Territories of Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands as part of geographic Australia, another category at the state and territory level has been created, known as Other Territories. Other Territories include Jervis Bay Territory, previously included with the Australian Capital Territory, as well as Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

Population growth

For Australia, population growth is the sum of natural increase and net overseas migration. For states and territories, population growth also includes net interstate migration. After the census, intercensal population growth also includes an allowance for intercensal discrepancy.

Remoteness Area (RA)

Within the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), the Remoteness structure comprises six categories called Remoteness Areas (RAs). Each RA is created from the grouping of Collection Districts (CDs) identifying a (non-contiguous) region in Australia having a particular degree of remoteness.

Remoteness categories will continue as part of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS). Within the ASGS, the remoteness classification will comprise six categories or Remoteness Areas (RAs), being a grouping of Statistical Areas Level 1 (SA1s) instead of CDs.

The RA categories for Australia disseminated in this publication are: Major Cities, Inner Regional, Outer Regional, Remote, and Very Remote. The sixth category is Migratory and is not available for dissemination.

Sex ratio

The sex ratio relates to the number of males per 100 females.

Standardised death rate (SDR)

Standardised death rates (SDRs) enable the comparison of death rates between populations with different age structures by relating them to a standard population. The ABS standard populations relate to the years ending in 1 (e.g. 2001). The current standard population is all persons in the Australian population at 30 June 2001. SDRs are expressed per 1,000 or 100,000 persons. There are two methods of calculating standardised death rates:

  • The direct method - this is used when the populations under study are large and the age-specific death rates are reliable. It is the overall death rate that would have prevailed in the standard population if it had experienced at each age the death rates of the population under study.
  • The indirect method - this is used when the populations under study are small and the age-specific death rates are unreliable or not known. It is an adjustment to the crude death rate of the standard population to account for the variation between the actual number of deaths in the population under study and the number of deaths which would have occurred if the population under study had experienced the age-specific death rates of the standard population.

Wherever used, the definition adopted is indicated.

Standardised mortality ratio

The ratio of the actual number of deaths in the population under study and the number of deaths which would have occurred if the population under study had experienced the age-specific death rates of the standard population (see also Standardised death rate, the indirect method).

State or territory of registration

State or territory of registration refers to the state or territory in which the event was registered.

State or territory of usual residence

State or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory of usual residence of:
  • the population (estimated resident population);
  • the mother (birth collection);
  • the deceased (death collection).

Statistical Area Level 1 (SA1)

An area defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard and designed as the smallest unit for the release of census data. They generally have a population of 200 to 800 people, and an average population of about 400 people. SA1s in remote and regional areas generally have smaller populations than those in urban areas. There are approximately 55,000 SA1s and they cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. Deaths data are not available at this level of geography.

For more information, please refer to Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001).

Statistical Area Level 2 (SA2)

A general-purpose medium-sized area defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard and built from whole SA1s. They aim to represent communities that interact together socially and economically. SA2s are based on officially gazetted suburbs and localities. In urban areas SA2s largely conform to one or more whole suburbs, while in rural areas they generally define the functional zone of a regional centre. SA2s generally have a population range of 3,000 to 25,000 people, and an average population of about 10,000 people. There are approximately 2,200 SA2s and they cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. SA2s are the base unit for preparing sub-state mortality statistics.

For more information, please refer to Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001).

Statistical Area Level 3 (SA3)

An area defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard and built up from SA2s which provides a standardised regional breakup of Australia. SA3s aim to create a standard framework for the analysis of ABS data at the regional level through clustering groups of whole SA2s that have similar regional characteristics. Their boundaries reflect a combination of widely recognised informal regions as well as existing administrative regions such as State Government Regions in rural areas and Local Government Areas in urban areas. SA3s generally range in population from 30,000 to 130,000 people. There are around 330 SA3s and they cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps.

For more information, please refer to Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001).

Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4)

An area defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard and designed for the output of labour force data and to reflect labour markets. In rural areas SA4s generally represent aggregations of multiple small labour markets with socioeconomic connections or similar industry characteristics. Large regional city labour markets are generally defined by a single SA4. Within major metropolitan labour markets SA4s represent sub-labour markets. SA4s are built from whole SA3s. They generally have a population over 100,000 people to enable accurate labour force survey data to be generated. There are 88 SA4s and they cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps.

For more information, please refer to Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001).

Statistical Division (SD)

An area defined in the Australian Standard Geographical Classification which represents a large, general purpose, regional type geographic area. SDs represent relatively homogeneous regions characterised by identifiable social and economic links between the residents and between the economic units within the region, under the unifying influence of one or more major towns or cities. They consist of one or more Statistical Subdivisions and cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps.

For more information, please refer to Australian Standard Geographic Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0).

Statistical Local Area (SLA)

An area defined in the Australian Standard Geographical Classification that is a Local Government Areas, or part thereof. Where there is no incorporated body of local government, SLAs are defined to cover the unincorporated areas. In Census years, up until the 2006 Census, SLAs consisted of one or more whole Collection Districts. SLAs cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps.

For more information, please refer to Australian Standard Geographic Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0).

Statistical Subdivision (SSD)

An area defined in the Australian Standard Geographical Classification which represents an intermediate level, general purpose, regional type geographic unit. SSDs consist of one or more Statistical Local Areas and cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps.

For more information, please refer to Australian Standard Geographic Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0).

Usual residence

Usual residence within Australia refers to that address at which the person has lived or intends to live for a total of six months or more in a given reference year.

Year of occurrence

Data presented on year of occurrence basis relate to the date the death occurred.

Year of registration

Data presented on year of registration basis relate to the date the death was registered.


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