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6342.0 - Working Arrangements, Australia, Nov 2000  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/08/2001   
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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS


OVERVIEW

In November 2000 there were 7,715,600 employees aged 15 years and over. Over the period from August 1997, when the survey was last conducted, to November 2000, the following changes to working arrangements were recorded:

  • the proportion of part-time employees in the workforce increased from 25% to 27%;
  • the proportion of employees with flexible start and finish times increased from 37% to 39%;
  • the proportion of employees able to choose when to take holidays decreased from 71% to 70%;
  • the proportion of employees entitled to a Rostered Day Off (RDO) fell from 23% to 20%; and
  • the proportion of employees working Monday to Friday fell from 60% to 59%.

DAYS OF THE WEEK USUALLY WORKS IN MAIN JOB
GRAPH - DAYS OF THE WEEK USUALLY WORKS IN MAIN JOB - GRAPH

WHETHER CAN WORK EXTRA HOURS TO GET TIME OFF
GRAPH - WHETHER CAN WORK EXTRA HOURS TO GET TIME OFF - GRAPH


ROSTERED DAYS OFF

In November 2000, there were 1,573,100 employees who were entitled to an RDO. Of these, 857,100 (54%) were entitled every month, 276,100 (18%) were entitled every fortnight, and 150,500 (10%) were entitled every week. The proportion of employees who were entitled to an RDO decreased between August 1997 and November 2000, from 1,572,600 (23%) to 1,573,100 (20%).

The number of full-time employees who were entitled to an RDO fell from 1,491,100 (29%) in 1997 to 1,474,700 (26%) in 2000. The number of part-time employees entitled to an RDO increased from 81,500 to 98,400, however, the proportion remained steady at 5%. Males in full-time work were more likely to be entitled to an RDO than females in full-time work (27% compared to 25%).


OVERTIME & SHIFT WORK

In November 2000 there were 2,543,800 employees (33%) who usually worked overtime in their main job. Male employees were more likely to work overtime than female employees (39% compared to 25%). A higher proportion of full-time employees (41%) worked overtime on a regular basis compared to part-time employees (12%). Occupations that had the highest proportions of employees working overtime were Managers and administrators (55%) and Professionals (48%), while those with the lowest were Elementary clerical, sales and service workers (15%) and Labourers and related workers (18%).

Of those employees who usually worked overtime, 1,528,900 (60%) worked between one and nine hours of overtime per week, with 3% working 25 hours or more of overtime per week. For the most recent period of overtime, 977,000 (38%) employees received overtime pay, 851,200 (33%) employees were unpaid, and 540,300 (21%) employees had overtime included in their salary package.


1. WHETHER MOST RECENT PERIOD OF OVERTIME WAS PAID

Males
Females
Persons
'000
%
'000
%
'000
%
Paid overtime
711.6
43.2
265.4
29.7
977.0
38.4
Unpaid overtime
454.9
27.6
396.2
44.3
851.2
33.5
Overtime included in salary package
389.5
23.6
150.8
16.8
540.3
21.2
Overtime taken as time off in lieu
59.4
3.6
72.6
8.1
132.0
5.2
Other arrangements
33.3
2.0
10.0
1.1
43.3
1.7
Total
1,648.8
100.0
895.0
100.0
2,543.8
100.0



In November 2000, 1,076,100 employees (14%) had worked shift work in the previous four weeks. A higher proportion of part-time employees worked shift work compared to full-time employees (16% compared to 13%). Male employees were more likely to have worked shift work than female employees, in both full-time work (14% compared to 11%) and part-time work (17% compared to 16%).

Industries with the highest proportions of shift workers were Mining (37%), Health and community services (32%) and Accommodation, cafes and restaurants (31%). The occupation with the highest proportion of shift workers was Intermediate production and transport workers (24%).


ABSENCES

The proportion of employees who had an absence from work of at least three hours in the two weeks prior to the survey remained constant at 19% between August 1997 and November 2000.

Of those employees who had an absence in the two weeks prior to the survey 1,050,900 (73%) were paid for their most recent absence. The most common reasons for absences were 'Own ill health, physical disability' (35%) and 'Recreational purposes' (34%). Of those who had an absence in the two weeks prior to the survey, 37% used sick leave to cover their most recent absence and 32% used holiday leave.

In the two weeks prior to the survey:
  • 134,200 employees (9%) had a part day absence;
  • 613,200 employees (43%) had an absence of one full day;
  • 225,600 employees (16%) had an absence of two full days, and
  • 423,800 employees (29%) had an absence of three days or more.


CHILDCARE

Of the 7,715,600 employees at November 2000, 1,900,400 (25%) had children under the age of 12 years. Of those employees with children under 12 years, 538,600 (28%) had used formal childcare in the last two weeks.

Of those employees with children under 12 years of age who had flexible start and finish times, 30% used formal childcare. In comparison, of those employees with children aged under 12 years of age who did not have flexible start and finish times, 26% used formal childcare.


EXPLANATORY NOTES


INTRODUCTION

1 The statistics in this publication were compiled from data collected in the Working Arrangements Survey conducted throughout Australia in November 2000 as a supplement to the monthly Labour Force Survey (LFS). Respondents to the LFS who were in scope of the supplementary survey were asked further questions.

2 The publication Labour Force, Australia (Cat. no. 6203.0) contains information about survey design, sample redesign, scope, coverage and population benchmarks relevant to the monthly LFS, which also apply to supplementary surveys. It also contains definitions of demographic and labour force characteristics, and information about telephone interviewing which are relevant to both the monthly LFS and supplementary surveys.


SCOPE

3 The scope of this supplementary survey was restricted to employees aged 15 years or more. The survey also excluded the following persons:
  • persons attending school (including students at boarding schools);
  • patients in hospitals;
  • residents in homes (e.g. retirement homes);
  • inmates of prisons; and
  • employees who worked solely for payment in kind in their main job.

4 In addition to those already excluded from the monthly LFS, there were approximately 80,000 persons living in remote and sparsely settled parts of Australia who were out of scope of this survey. The exclusion of these persons has only a minor impact on any aggregate estimates produced for individual States and Territories, except for the Northern Territory. Please contact the person listed on the front cover of this publication if you require more information.


COVERAGE

5 The estimates in this publication relate to persons within scope of the survey in November 2000. In the LFS, coverage rules are applied which aim to ensure that each person is associated with only one dwelling, and hence has only one chance of selection in the survey. See Labour Force Australia (Cat. no. 6203.0).


RELIABILITY OF THE ESTIMATES

6 Estimates in this publication are subject to sampling and non-sampling errors.
  • Sampling error is the difference between the published estimate and the value that would have been produced if all dwellings had been included in the survey. For further information on sampling error, refer to the Technical Note.
  • Non-sampling errors are inaccuracies that occur because of imperfections in reporting by respondents and interviewers, and errors made in coding and processing data. These inaccuracies may occur in any enumeration, whether a full count or a sample. Every effort is made to reduce the non-sampling error through careful design of questionnaires, intensive training and supervision of interviewers and efficient processing procedures.


SEASONAL FACTORS

7 The estimates are based on information collected in the survey month and, due to seasonal factors, may not be representative of other months of the year.


CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION

8 From August 1996, occupation data are classified according to the second edition of the Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO). For more detailed information, see ASCO - Australian Standard Classification of Occupations, Second Edition (Cat. no. 1220.0) and Information Paper - Census of Population and Housing: Link Between First and Second Editions of Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) (Cat. no. 1232.0).

9 From August 1994, industry data are classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), a detailed description of which appears in Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 (Cat. no. 1292.0). Like the previous Australian Standard Industrial Classification, ANZSIC classifies businesses according to their economic activities, in a structure consisting of four levels (Division, Subdivision, Group and Class). Supplementary survey data are coded at the Group level, as was the practice under the previous Australian Standard Industrial Classification.


CHANGES IN THIS SURVEY

10 The following data items were collected in the 1997 survey, but not in the 2000 survey:
  • Size of location (employees)
  • Hours worked in main job
  • Weekly earnings in main job
  • Type of standard benefit received - Superannuation and Long service leave

11 The following new data items were collected in the 2000 survey:
  • Number of days usually worked per week/month
  • Whether normally works the same number of hours each week in main job (excluding overtime)
  • Whether would prefer more, less or the same number of hours as usually worked
  • Whether works in a job-share arrangement in main job
  • Main reason for working overtime in main job


NOTES ON ESTIMATES

12 In November 2000 there were 35,400 persons for whom sector of main job could not be determined. These persons were included in the private sector for the purpose of this publication.

13 In November 2000 there were 13,600 persons who had children aged under 12 years for whom use of both formal and informal childcare could not be determined. These persons have been classified to a ‘could not be determined’ category in this publication.


CHANGES TO TERMINOLOGY

14 In the August 2000 survey, the terms 'Permanent' and 'Casual' were replaced to more accurately reflect what is collected in the survey. The term 'Permanent' has been replaced with 'With leave entitlements', and 'Casual' has been replaced with the term 'Without leave entitlements'. Definitions of 'With leave entitlements' and 'Without leave entitlements' are included in the Glossary.


COMPARABILITY OF TIME SERIES

15 Revisions are made to population benchmarks for the LFS after each five-yearly Census of Population and Housing. The last such revision was made in February 1999 to take account of the results of the 1996 Census of Population and Housing. Estimates from supplementary surveys conducted from and including February 1999 are therefore based on revised population benchmarks.

16 Supplementary surveys are not always conducted on the full LFS sample. Apart from scope exclusions, such as those listed in paragraphs 3 and 4, since August 1994, the sample available for supplementary surveys has been restricted to no more than seven-eighths of the LFS sample. Since it was introduced, this survey has been conducted on various proportional samples. Therefore, sampling errors associated with previous surveys may vary from the sampling errors for this survey.

17 In August 1993, employees attending school were included in the tabulations of total employees. From August 1995 those attending school have been excluded.


COMPARABILITY WITH LABOUR FORCE STATISTICS

18 Due to differences in the scope and sample size of this supplementary survey and that of the monthly LFS, the estimation procedure may lead to variations between labour force estimates from this survey and those from the LFS.


PREVIOUS SURVEYS

19 Results of similar surveys, conducted in August 1993, August 1995, and August 1997 were published in Working Arrangements, Australia (Cat no. 6342.0), and in the standard data service Working Arrangements, Australia (Cat no. 6342.0.40.001) respectively.


NEXT SURVEY

20 The ABS plans to conduct this survey again in November 2003.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

21 ABS publications draw extensively on information provided freely by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated: without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.


RELATED PUBLICATIONS

22 Other publications which may be of interest include:
  • Employment Benefits, Australia (Cat no. 6334.0.40.001)
  • Weekly Earnings of Employees (Distribution), Australia (Cat no. 6310.0)
  • Career Experience, Australia (Cat. no. 6254.0)
  • Labour Force, Australia (Cat. no. 6203.0)
  • Labour Statistics: Concepts, Sources and Methods (Cat. no. 6102.0)

23 Current publications produced by the ABS are listed in the Catalogue of Publications and Products (Cat. no. 1101.0). The ABS also issues, on Tuesdays and Fridays, a Release Advice (Cat. no. 1105.0) which lists publications to be released in the next few days. The Catalogue and Release Advice are available from any ABS office or from the ABS Information Service on the Internet, <http://www.abs.gov.au>.


GLOSSARY

Absence from work

An absence from the workplace during normal working hours of at least three hours. Absences due to the following have been excluded:
  • rostered day off;
  • time off on flex leave/time off in lieu;
  • workers compensation; and
  • self-employed (no leave)

Bereavement leave

A short period of leave granted upon the death of a close family relative.

Dependants

All family members under 15 years of age; all sons or daughters aged 15–19 attending school or aged 15–24 attending a tertiary educational institution full time, except those classified as husbands, wives or lone parents.

Employees

Employed persons aged 15 years and over who worked in their main job for an employer for wages or salary or in their own incorporated enterprise with or without hiring employees.

Examination leave

Refer to Study leave.

Family

Two or more related persons (relationship includes relationships by blood, marriage or adoption) usually resident in the same household at the time of the survey. A family comprises a married couple, or a family head, together with any persons having any of the following relationships with them:
  • sons or daughters of any age, if not married and with no children of their own present;
  • other relatives if not accompanied by a spouse, sons or daughters, or parents of their own; or
  • any children under 15 years of age who do not have a parent present.

Further details on the determination of family relationships are given in Labour Force, Australia (Cat no. 6203.0).

Flex leave

Time off that must be made up in another work period or that is granted for time that has already been made up by working extra hours. See also Time off in lieu.

Flexible start and finish times

Flexible start and finish times are start and finish times that are not fixed and are variable daily, or start and finish times that are fixed but negotiated with employer.

Formal childcare

Includes any arrangements made for the care of children under 12 years of age by one or more of the following:
  • a childcare centre;
  • a long day care centre;
  • an occasional care centre;
  • a preschool/kindergarten;
  • before and/or after school care (attendance at school is not classed as formal child care);
  • family day care;
  • vacation care; or
  • the workplace.

Full-time employees in main job

All employees for whom ‘full-time’ was the response to the question ‘Is your main job full-time or part-time?’.

Full-time workers

Employees who usually worked a total of 35 hours or more a week in all jobs and others who usually work less than 35 hours a week but worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.

Holiday leave

Provision by employers of paid holiday leave, which normally accrues during a set period and can be taken at an approved time. This is collected by responses to the question ‘Does your employer provide you with paid holiday leave?’.

Hours worked

The number of hours actually worked during the reference week.

Industry

Classified using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 (Cat. no. 1292.0). In this publication industry relates to the main job and is shown at the ANZSIC Division level.

Informal childcare

Includes any arrangements made for the care of children under 12 years of age by one or more of the following:
  • took child to work;
  • child looked after by self, spouse, family member or other relative;
  • child looked after by neighbours, friends or nanny; and
  • child was not looked after by anyone or no childcare used.

Irregular shifts

Describes shifts that do not follow a set pattern.

Job-share arrangement

A formal arrangement where two or more people share one full-time job. Each person sharing the job works part-time.

Leave entitlements

The entitlement of employees to either paid holiday leave or paid sick leave in their main job.

Long-service leave

Provision by employers or industries of long-service leave to an employee, as collected by responses to the question ‘Does your employer or industry provide long-service leave?’. Persons who ‘did not know’ whether they were provided with long-service leave were considered to be not in receipt of this benefit.

Main English-speaking countries

Comprises Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.

Main job

The job in which most hours were usually worked.

Maternity leave

Leave for women, covering the period preceding and following the birth of a child.

Occupation

Classified according to ASCO - Australian Standard Classification of Occupations, Second Edition (Cat. no. 1220.0). In this publication, occupation relates to the main job and is shown at the Major Group level.

Overtime

Work undertaken which is outside, or in addition to, ordinary working hours of the respondent in their main job, whether paid or unpaid.

Part-time employees in main job

All employees for whom ‘part-time’ was a response to the question ‘Is your main job full-time or part-time?’

Part-time workers

Employees who usually worked a total of less than 35 hours a week in all jobs and who did so during the reference week.

Parental leave

Leave taken by either parent to care for children.

Paternity leave

Leave for men to attend the birth of their child or to care for the child after birth.

Reference week

The week before the survey.

Regular shifts

Shifts worked to a set pattern of times. Regular shift times are presented as follows:
  • morning shifts - between 6.00 am and 12.00 pm;
  • afternoon shifts - between 12.00 pm and 5.00 pm; and
  • evening, night or graveyard shift - between 5.00 pm and 6.00 am.

If an employee started a shift in one time period, but finished in another, the shift was recorded according to which time period the respondent worked the majority of their hours.

Rostered Day Off

Scheme where employees accumulate time off by working extra hours on a number of other work days. The allocation of work time is rostered over a prescribed period.

Sector of main job

Is used to classify a respondent’s employer as a public or private enterprise. Public sector includes local government authorities, government departments, agencies and authorities created by, or reporting to, the Commonwealth and State Parliaments.

Shifts

Split shift - Occurs when the workday period is broken by an extended unpaid ‘free’ period, thereby constituting an extended working day consisting of two (or more) shifts.

Rotating shift - A shift arrangement, in which the shift worked changes periodically from one time period to another, for example from mornings or afternoons to evenings or nights.

On call - A shift arrangement, for being available, when not at work, to be contacted to resume work. An allowance may be paid to the employee for being on call.

Shift work

A system of working whereby the daily hours of operation at the place of employment are split into at least two set work periods (shifts), for different groups of workers.

Sick leave

Provision by employers of paid sick leave, as collected by responses to the question ‘Does your employer provide you with paid sick leave?’

Study leave

Leave to attend classes, examinations, or to study for a qualification from an educational institution.

Time off in lieu

Time off that must be made up in another work period or that has already been made up by working extra hours.

Trade union

An organisation consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members.

Trade union member

Employees with membership in a trade union in conjunction with their main job.

Unapproved leave

Unofficial or informal leave that has not been granted by the employer.

With leave entitlements in main job

Employees who were entitled to either paid holiday leave or paid sick leave in their main job.

Without leave entitlements in main job

Employees who were entitled to neither paid holiday leave nor paid sick leave in their main job.

Workers' compensation leave

Leave taken due to illness or injury sustained while at work or on a journey to or from work, or an aggravation of a pre-existing condition where employment was a contributory factor, and which is covered by workers' compensation.

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