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3311.0.55.001 - Demography, Australia, 2003  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 22/02/2005   
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POPULATION
BIRTHS AND CONFINEMENTS
DEATHS
MIGRATION
MARRIAGES
DIVORCES

    NOTES


    OVERVIEW

    This electronic product provides a demographic overview of Australia for 2003. It contains summary tables and commentary on trends in the components of population change including births, deaths and migration. This product also includes marriages, divorces and the estimated resident population. Various demographic rates and comparisons between the states and territories of Australia are presented. Population and migration data are for the year ended 30 June 2003, while births, deaths, marriages and divorces data are for the year ended 31 December 2003. More recent data are released quarterly in Australian Demographic Statistics (cat.no. 3101.0).

    Demography publications for each state and territory can be accessed from the following links: Additional state demographic data are also available from publications and data cubes linked at the foot of this page. The Demography Theme Page provides links to other Australian as well as international demographic statistics. The National Regional Profiles provide economic and social statistics of Statistical Local Areas and Local Government Areas of Australia.

    INQUIRIES

    For further information about these and related statistics, contact the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135 070 or Neil Scott on Canberra (02) 6252 5997.



    SUMMARY COMMENTARY


    POPULATION

    In the 12 months to 30 June 2003 the Australian resident population was estimated to have increased by 231,700 persons and reached 19,872,600 (9,873,400 males and 9,999,200 females). Over three-quarters of the population resided in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland in 2003 (comprising 33.6%, 24.7% and 19.1% of the Australian population respectively). The two territories comprised the smallest proportion of the Australian population, with the Australian Capital Territory accounting for 1.6% of the population, and the Northern Territory 1.0%.


    The rate of growth of the Australian population was 1.2% in 2003. The population in the majority of states and territories in Australia increased during this time except the Northern Territory which recorded a slight decrease of 0.06% due to a loss in net interstate migration. Queensland experienced the highest level of growth at 2.4% with an increase of 90,100 persons, accounting for 38.9% of Australia's total population growth in 2003. Western Australia and Victoria with growth rates of 1.3% and 1.1% were the only other states to experience growth greater than 1.0%. The lowest rates of growth, apart from the Northern Territory which was in decline, was experienced in South Australia (0.5%), the Australian Capital Territory (0.6%) and New South Wales (0.7%).

    POPULATION GROWTH AUSTRALIA, by state and territory - at 30 June 2003
    Graph: POPULATION GROWTH AUSTRALIA, by state and territory—at 30 June 2003



    All states experienced positive natural increase and net overseas migration. In 2003 Tasmania reversed a long-time trend of population loss through interstate migration and joined Queensland and Victoria as the only other states to experience positive net interstate migration. Net overseas migration to Australia accounted for just over half of the total Australian population increase in 2003 at 116,500 persons.

    POPULATION AUSTRALIA, by state and territory - at 30 June 2003

    NSW
    Vic.
    Qld
    SA
    WA
    Tas.
    NT
    ACT
    Aust.(a)

    Estimated resident population('000)
    6,682.1
    4,911.4
    3,801.0
    1,526.3
    1,949.9
    477.3
    198.5
    323.4
    19,872.6
    Components of population change(b)
    Natural increase(c)no.
    38,814
    27,392
    23,738
    5,198
    12,630
    1,784
    2,943
    2,610
    115,169
    Net overseas migrationno.
    40,919
    26,777
    27,122
    3,904
    15,575
    1,014
    325
    885
    116,498
    Net interstate migrationno.
    -31,790
    28
    39,207
    -1,497
    -2,810
    1,895
    -3,389
    -1,644
    . .
    Total increase(d)no.
    47,943
    54,197
    90,067
    7,605
    25,395
    4,693
    -121
    1,851
    231,667
    Annual growth rate%
    0.72
    1.12
    2.43
    0.50
    1.32
    0.99
    -0.06
    0.58
    1.18

    . . not applicable
    (a) Includes Other Territories.
    (b) From previous year.
    (c) Births and deaths figures used to compile natural increase for population estimates are based on year of occurrence and may differ from births and deaths data based on year of registration displayed in the Births and Confinements and Deaths sections of this paper.
    (d) Includes intercensal discrepancy not accounted for by natural increase and net migration.



    BIRTHS AND CONFINEMENTS

    During 2003 there were 251,200 births registered in Australia, from 247,100 mothers (confinements). The three most populous states accounted for over three-quarters of registered births in 2003 with 86,300 births to mothers usually resident in New South Wales (34.4% of all births), 61,100 in Victoria (24.3%) and 48,300 in Queensland (19.2%). There were 3,800 births to mothers usually resident in the Northern Territory (1.5%), which accounted for the smallest proportion of all births in Australia. The sex ratio for every state and territory in Australia was greater than 100, ranging from 104.9 male births per 100 female births in Victoria to a ratio of 110.3 in the Northern Territory.


    The total fertility rate (TFR), that is the average number of babies that a woman could expect to bear during her reproductive lifetime, was 1.75 children per woman for Australia. The Northern Territory experienced the highest TFR (2.38 children per woman) and was the only state or territory to experience a TFR greater than the replacement rate of 2.1. Tasmania had the second highest TFR with a rate of 1.89, while the Australian Capital Territory experienced the lowest TFR, with 1.60. The Northern Territory also experienced the highest crude birth rate with 19.1 births per 1,000 population, this was well above the national rate of 12.6. The lowest crude birth rate was 11.4 in South Australia.


    In 2003, there were 171,900 nuptial births, representing 68.4% of births in Australia in that year and decreasing from 68.7% in 2002. Victoria had the highest proportion of nuptial births of all the states and territories, accounting for 73.4% of all births in that state. This was followed by the Australian Capital Territory where 72.7% of all births were nuptial births, and New South Wales with 72.2%. The proportion of exnuptial births was greatest in the Northern Territory where it accounted for 63.9% of all births in that territory, followed by Tasmania where 46.0% of births were exnuptial.

    EXNUPTIAL BIRTHS AUSTRALIA, Proportion of total births by state and territory - 1993 and 2003
    Graph: EXNUPTIAL BIRTHS AUSTRALIA, Proportion of total births by state and territory—1993 and 2003



    The median age for mothers giving birth in Australia was 30.5 years. The oldest mothers were recorded in Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory with median ages of 31.2 years and 31.0 years respectively. The oldest fathers were also recorded in Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory, with median ages of 33.1 years and 32.9 years respectively. The youngest mothers were in the Northern Territory with a median age of 28.2 years, and in Tasmania with a median age of 29.3 years. Tasmania and the Northern Territory also had the youngest fathers, with median ages of 31.8 and 31.7 years respectively.

    BIRTHS AND CONFINEMENTS AUSTRALIA(a), by state and territory - 2003

    NSW
    Vic.
    Qld
    SA
    WA
    Tas.
    NT
    ACT
    Aust.(b)

    Live births
    Numberno.
    86,344
    61,058
    48,342
    17,443
    24,273
    5,752
    3,790
    4,128
    251,161
    Crude birth rate(c)rate
    12.9
    12.4
    12.7
    11.4
    12.4
    12.1
    19.1
    12.8
    12.6
    Total fertility rate(d)rate
    1.798
    1.669
    1.776
    1.720
    1.739
    1.892
    2.377
    1.601
    1.755
    Net reproduction rate(e)rate
    0.861
    0.805
    0.852
    0.823
    0.838
    0.903
    1.091
    0.769
    0.842
    All confinements
    Numberno.
    84,975
    59,989
    47,601
    17,142
    23,874
    5,663
    3,743
    4,071
    247,089
    Median age of mother(f)years
    30.5
    31.2
    29.7
    30.6
    30.2
    29.3
    28.2
    31.0
    30.5
    Nuptial confinements
    Numberno.
    61,253
    43,944
    29,837
    11,144
    15,228
    3,042
    1,340
    2,962
    168,777
    Median age of mother(f)years
    31.3
    31.8
    31.1
    31.7
    31.4
    31.0
    31.6
    31.6
    31.4
    Median age of father(f)years
    33.5
    33.7
    33.0
    33.7
    33.5
    33.2
    33.5
    33.5
    33.5
    First nuptial confinements
    Numberno.
    26,310
    19,377
    12,265
    4,852
    6,280
    1,198
    557
    1,315
    72,164
    Median age of mother(f)years
    30.1
    30.6
    29.9
    30.5
    30.3
    29.9
    30.4
    30.3
    30.3

    (a) Compiled on year of registration basis.
    (b) Includes Other Territories.
    (c) Births per 1,000 population.
    (d) Births per woman.
    (e) Daughters surviving to reproduction age per woman.
    (f) The age at which half the population is older and half is younger.



    DEATHS

    There were 132,300 deaths in Australia in 2003 with 46,100 (34.9% of total deaths) registered to persons usually resident in New South Wales, 32,900 (24.9%) in Victoria, and 23,500 (17.8%) in Queensland. Australia had a sex ratio of 106.8 male deaths per 100 female deaths, and ranged from 103.6 male deaths per 100 female deaths in Victoria to a rate of 167.6 in the Northern Territory.


    The crude death rate (CDR) for Australia was 6.7 deaths per 1,000 population in 2003. CDRs ranged from 4.4 deaths per 1,000 population in both the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory to 8.3 in Tasmania. The standardised death rate (SDR) which eliminates the effect of the changing age structure of the population was 6.4 deaths per 1,000 standard population. The Australian Capital Territory experienced the lowest SDR, which was 5.8 deaths per 1,000 whereas the Northern Territory experienced the highest SDR at 9.0 deaths per 1,000 population, 2.6 deaths more per 1,000 than the national SDR. Males generally have a higher SDR than females and this is evident in all states and territories of Australia.

    STANDARDISED DEATH RATES AUSTRALIA(a), by state and territory - 2003
    Graph: STANDARDISED DEATH RATES AUSTRALIA(a), by state and territory—2003



    In 2003 life expectancy at birth was 77.8 years for males, and 82.8 years for females. The highest life expectancy for both males and females was in the Australian Capital Territory, where the expectation of life at birth was 79.2 years for males, and 83.8 years for females. The lowest life expectancy for males and females was recorded in the Northern Territory where the expectation of life at birth was 72.0 years and 77.3 years respectively. The median age of death was also lowest in the Northern Territory for both males (56.7 years) and females (63.8 years), well below the national values of 76.3 years for males and 82.4 years for females. The median age at death was highest in South Australia, with 77.5 years for males and 83.1 years for females.


    The infant mortality rate (IMR) for Australia was 4.8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2003. The Northern Territory had an IMR of 8.4, the highest of all states and territories. The second highest IMR was 7.0 in Tasmania.

    DEATHS AUSTRALIA(a), by state and territory - 2003

    NSW
    Vic.
    Qld
    SA
    WA
    Tas.
    NT
    ACT
    Aust.(b)

    Numberno.
    46,111
    32,925
    23,500
    12,185
    11,311
    3,965
    875
    1,414
    132,292
    Crude death rate(c)rate
    6.9
    6.7
    6.2
    8.0
    5.8
    8.3
    4.4
    4.4
    6.7
    Standardised death rate(d)rate
    6.4
    6.3
    6.4
    6.6
    6.2
    7.4
    9.0
    5.8
    6.4
    Median age at death(e)
    Malesyears
    76.3
    76.8
    75.6
    77.5
    75.5
    75.9
    56.7
    73.9
    76.3
    Femalesyears
    82.6
    82.6
    81.9
    83.1
    82.1
    82.1
    63.8
    81.5
    82.4
    Infant deaths
    Numberno.
    398
    309
    230
    65
    100
    40
    32
    24
    1,199
    Infant mortality rate(f)rate
    4.6
    5.1
    4.8
    3.7
    4.1
    7.0
    8.4
    5.8
    4.8
    Life expectancy at birth
    Malesyears
    77.7
    78.2
    77.6
    77.7
    78.1
    76.6
    72.0
    79.2
    77.8
    Femalesyears
    82.9
    83.1
    82.8
    82.7
    83.0
    81.4
    77.3
    83.8
    82.8

    (a) Compiled on year of registration basis.
    (b) Includes Other Territories.
    (c) Deaths per 1,000 population.
    (d) Deaths per 1,000 standard population. Standardised death rates have been revised using the 2001 standard population.
    (e) The age at which their are as many people dying above the age as there are below it.
    (f) Deaths per 1,000 live births.



    MIGRATION

    In 2003 Australia gained 116,500 persons through net overseas migration (NOM). This was the result of 373,800 permanent and long-term arrivals outnumbering 219,600 permanent and long-term departures. Every state and territory increased its population through NOM. The largest gain was to New South Wales, with an increase of 40,900 persons (this accounted for 35.1% of Australia's NOM), while the smallest increase was to the Northern Territory, gaining 330 persons.


    An estimated 398,500 persons moved interstate in 2003. Queensland, Tasmania and Victoria were the only states to experience a net interstate migration gain in 2003. The greatest increase was in Queensland, gaining 39,200 persons, followed by Tasmania which gained 1,900 persons due to net interstate migration. All other states and territories experienced net interstate losses of varying magnitude, with the largest loss recorded by New South Wales (31,800 persons). South Australia had the smallest population loss due to net interstate migration, losing 1,500 persons. Proportionately, however, the Northern Territory lost 1.7% of its population through interstate migration and Queensland gained the most to its population at 1.0%.

    NET MIGRATION AUSTRALIA, Movement shown as proportion of population(a) by state and territory - at 30 June 2003
    Graph: NET MIGRATION AUSTRALIA, Movement shown as proportion of population(a) by state and territory—at 30 June 2003



    The largest interstate flows in 2003 were between New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. The most common move was from New South Wales to Queensland (63,900 persons or 16.0% of all interstate movers). This flow was much greater than the next largest flow, from Queensland to New South Wales (38,000 persons or 9.5% of all interstate movers). Queensland continued to be the most popular destination for Australians moving interstate, receiving the largest number of arrivals during 2003 (120,200 persons). Over half of Queensland's arrivals came from New South Wales (53.2%), followed by Victoria (21.0%) and Western Australia (7.4%). Migrants from South Australia and Tasmania were most likely to move to Victoria whereas those from the Northern Territory were most likely to move to Queensland. There was a high degree of movement between the Australian Capital Territory and surrounding New South Wales.

    MIGRATION AUSTRALIA, by state and territory - at 30 June 2003

    NSW
    Vic.
    Qld
    SA
    WA
    Tas.
    NT
    ACT
    Aust.(a)

    Overseas migration
    Permanent and long-term movement(b)
    Arrivalsno.
    147,345
    91,058
    64,447
    15,394
    42,615
    3,108
    2,564
    7,245
    373,793
    Departuresno.
    91,539
    49,720
    36,686
    9,462
    21,413
    2,213
    2,130
    6,363
    219,568
    Net overseas migration(c)no.
    40,919
    26,777
    27,122
    3,904
    15,575
    1,014
    325
    885
    116,498
    Interstate migration
    Arrivalsno.
    93,405
    74,204
    120,246
    29,856
    30,898
    16,006
    14,757
    19,082
    398,454
    Departuresno.
    125,195
    74,176
    81,039
    31,353
    33,708
    14,111
    18,146
    20,726
    398,454
    Net interstate migrationno.
    -31,790
    28
    39,207
    -1,497
    -2,810
    1,895
    -3,389
    -1,644
    . .

    . . not applicable
    (a) Includes Other Territories.
    (b) Based on stated intention on arrival or departure.
    (c) For years ending 30 June 2003, figures have been adjusted for changes in traveller intention and multiple mover error.



    MARRIAGES

    There were 106,400 marriages registered in Australia in 2003, of these 66.4% were marriages in which neither party had been previously married and 15.1% involved both parties remarrying. The proportion of marriages in which neither party had been previously married ranged from 58.5% in the Northern Territory to 69.0% in Victoria. Tasmania had the highest proportion of marriages in which both parties were remarrying (20.3%), while Victoria had the lowest (13.5%).


    The crude marriage rate for Australia was 5.4 marriages per 1,000 population. The lowest crude marriage rate was in the Northern Territory (3.6 marriages) and the highest was in Queensland (5.9 marriages).


    The median age for brides and bridegrooms was highest in the Northern Territory, 30 years and 33.1 years respectively, well above the national median ages of 29.1 years for brides and 31.2 years for bridegrooms. The lowest median age for brides was 28.8 years in New South Wales, while the lowest median age for bridegrooms was 30.9 years in both New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory.

    MARRIAGES AUSTRALIA, by state and territory - 2003

    NSW
    Vic.
    Qld
    SA
    WA
    Tas.
    NT
    ACT
    Aust.(a)

    Number registerno.
    36,872
    25,211
    22,273
    7,609
    9,549
    2,599
    723
    1,558
    106,394
    Crude marriage rate(b)rate
    5.5
    5.1
    5.9
    5.0
    4.9
    5.4
    3.6
    4.8
    5.4
    Median age at marriage(c)
    Bridegroomyears
    30.9
    31.2
    31.4
    31.2
    31.8
    31.8
    33.1
    30.9
    31.2
    Brideyears
    28.8
    29.3
    29.3
    29.2
    29.5
    29.7
    30.0
    29.0
    29.1

    (a) Includes Other Territories.
    (b) Marriages per 1,000 population.
    (c) The age at which there are as many people marrying above the age as there are below it.



    DIVORCES

    There were 53,100 divorces granted in Australia in 2003, which is 1.6% lower than the number granted in 2002 with a decrease of 860 divorces. During 2003 all states and territories recorded a decrease in the number of divorces except Western Australia and the Australian Capital Territory. Western Australia recorded its highest number of divorces on record at 5,700, an increase of 22.2% since 1993. Nationally the number of divorces has increased over the last decade by 9.9% from a total of 48,400 divorces registered in 1993. Across Australia in 2003, 24.6% of all applications for a divorce were from joint applications whereas 43.0% were made by wives and 32.4% by husbands.


    The crude divorce rate (the number of divorces per 1,000 total population) in 2003 was 2.7, remaining at the same level as in 2002. When comparing states and territories in 2003, New South Wales had the lowest crude divorce rate at 2.4 and Western Australian the highest at 2.9. However, this comparison does not include the crude divorce rate for the Australian Capital Territory which is not representative due to inflated rates caused by the large number of divorces granted in the territory involving persons usually resident in New South Wales.


    The national median age at divorce continued its long term trend increasing once again for both males and females in 2003. Nationally the median age at divorce increased to 42.6 years for males and 39.9 years for females. For males this was an increase of 3.3 years since 1993 and 6.3 years since 1983. For females this was an increase of 3.5 years since 1993 and 6.2 years since 1983. The rise in the median age at divorce is associated with increasing age at first marriage and an increase in the interval between marriage and divorce.

    DIVORCES AUSTRALIA, by state and territory - 2003

    NSW
    Vic.
    Qld
    SA
    WA
    Tas.
    NT
    ACT
    Aust.(a)

    Number grantedno.
    16,285
    12,865
    10,681
    4,151
    5,685
    1,336
    490
    1,652
    53,145
    Crude divorce rate(b)rate
    2.4
    2.6
    2.8
    2.7
    2.9
    2.8
    2.5
    np
    2.7
    Median duration of marriage
    To separationyears
    7.9
    8.7
    8.8
    9.3
    9.4
    9.8
    8.0
    9.6
    8.7
    To divorceyears
    11.4
    12.3
    12.4
    12.8
    13.2
    13.3
    11.7
    12.8
    12.2

    np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
    (a) Includes Other Territories.
    (b) Divorces per 1,000 population.


    Over the years the median duration of marriage (interval between the date of marriage and the date of divorce) has been increasing and in 2003 was 12.2 years. Variation between the states and territories ranged from 11.4 years in NSW to 13.3 years in Tasmania. The median duration of marriage to the time the parties separated has also increased over time from 7.6 years in 1993 to 8.7 years in 2003.

    MEDIAN DURATION TO DIVORCE AUSTRALIA, by state and territory - 1993 and 2003
    Graph: MEDIAN DURATION TO DIVORCE AUSTRALIA, by state and territory—1993 and 2003



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