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6359.0 - Forms of Employment, Australia, Nov 2001  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 13/09/2002   
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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

INTRODUCTION
Australia's workforce continues to change. There is an increasing diversity of employment arrangements, more flexible working time patterns, and significant increases in the extent of part-time and casual employment

The Forms of Employment Survey (FOES) describes forms of employment and working arrangements in the Australian Labour market. FOES also describes some of the employment and demographic characteristics of people in different employment types. The FOES, together with other ABS surveys such as the 2000 Survey of Employment Arrangements and Superannuation (SEAS), provides a wealth of data on the changing nature of work and the workplace.


THE FRAMEWORK

The FOES conceptual framework classifies jobholders to an employment type category on the basis of their main job, that is, the job in which they usually worked the most hours. The information on employment arrangements presented in this publication also relates to the jobholder's main job.

Image - The Framework



SUMMARY OF FINDINGS


EMPLOYMENT TYPES

In November 2001 there were 9,058,500 employed persons (excluding contributing family workers and persons who worked for payment in kind only, in their main job). The predominant employment type was Employees (excluding Owner managers of incorporated enterprises) with paid leave entitlements. This group made up 58% of all employed persons. The other large groups were Self-identified casuals (20%) and Owner managers of unincorporated enterprises (12%).


Employees with paid leave entitlements

Employees with paid leave entitlements accounted for 58% of all employed persons, although they accounted for 67% of all employed persons aged 25-34 years and 61% of employed persons aged 35-44 years. Sixteen percent of Employees with paid leave entitlements were in the Manufacturing industry, 12% were in Retail trade, and a further 12% were in Health and community services. Nearly one-quarter (23%) of Employees with paid leave entitlements were Professionals, and 19% were Intermediate clerical, sales and service workers.


Self-identified casuals

Self-identified casuals made up one-fifth (20%) of all employed persons. A relatively large proportion (42%) of Self-identified casuals were aged between 15-24 and almost one in five (19%) were dependent students. Almost half of all Self-identified casuals were employed in one of these three industries: Retail trade (28%), Accommodation, cafes and restaurants (12%) and Property and business services (9%). Over one-quarter (27%) of Self-identified casuals were Elementary clerical, sales and service workers, while 22% were Intermediate clerical, sales and service workers.


Employees without paid leave entitlements who did not identify as casual

Employees without paid leave entitlements who did not identify as casual made up the smallest of the five major employment types. At 229,500 persons, they represented just under 3% of all employed persons. One-quarter (25%) of this group were aged 25 to 34 years. Of persons who were Employees without paid leave entitlements, 16% were in Retail trade, 13% were in Property and business services, and 11% were in Construction. Seventeen percent were Intermediate clerical, sales and service workers, 15% were Tradespersons and related workers, and 15% were Professionals.

Owner managers of incorporated enterprises

There were 627,800 Owner managers of incorporated enterprises, making up 7% of all employed persons. Almost two-thirds (66%), were aged 35-54 years compared with 47% of all employed persons. Over half were in three industries: Property and business services (21%), Construction (17%), and Retail trade (13%). Nearly one-quarter (23%) of this group were Associate professionals, while a further 20% were Managers and administrators. Almost one-third (29%) of Owner managers of incorporated enterprises were born overseas. This group also had the highest proportion of persons who were a wife, husband or partner with dependents (48%), which compares with an average of 33% for all employment types.


Owner managers of unincorporated enterprises

Owner managers of unincorporated enterprises represented 12% of all employed persons. Of the 1,129,400 persons in this group, 21% were in Construction, and 16% were in Agriculture, forestry and fishing. Nearly one-quarter (24%) of this group were Tradespersons and related workers, while 17% were Managers and administrators.


Sex

Males comprised 56% of the 9,058,500 employed persons, and made up almost three-quarters (72%) of Owner managers of incorporated enterprises. Males also represented just over two-thirds (68%) of Owner managers of unincorporated enterprises. Females were most predominant in Self-identified casuals, making up 59% of this group.

Graph - Employment types, by sex



Length of time with employer/business

Close to half (45%) of Owner managers of incorporated enterprises and one-third (34%) of Owner managers of unincorporated enterprises had been with that business for more than 10 years. This compares with one-quarter (24%) of Employees with paid leave entitlements. Nine per cent of Employees without paid leave entitlements who did not identify as casual and 5% of Self-identified casuals had been with the same employer for more than 10 years.

Graph - Length of time with employer/business



Hours worked in main job in the reference week

The majority of Employees with paid leave entitlements (70%) worked 35 hours or more (i.e. full time) in their main job in the reference week. Seventeen percent of this group worked for 49 hours or more. In contrast, 76% of Self-identified casuals worked less than 35 hours (i.e. part time) in their main job in the reference week. Just over two-thirds (68%) of Owner managers (73% of Incorporated enterprises and 65% of Unincorporated enterprises) worked 35 hours or more in their main job in the reference week, with 40% working 49 hours or more.


EMPLOYEES (EXCLUDING OWNER MANAGERS OF INCORPORATED ENTERPRISES )


Preferred working hours

The majority of both full-time and part-time employees (excluding Owner managers of incorporated enterprises), said that they preferred to work the same hours that they were currently working (63% and 56% respectively). Just over one-third (35%) of part-time employees preferred to work more hours. The preference to work more hours increased to 43% for part-time Self-identified casuals. Of full-time employees, just under one-third (30%) preferred to work less hours.

Graph - Part-time employees preference for working hours, by sex



Tenure of employment

The majority of all employees (87%) expected to be with the same employer or business in 12 months time. Of Employees without paid leave entitlements, 78% anticipated that they would be with the same employer or business in a year's time, as did 76% of Self-identified casuals.


Employees working on fixed-term contract

At November 2001, 288,100 employees (4%) were on a fixed-term contract. Those on a fixed-term contract were most strongly represented among Employees without paid leave entitlements who did not identify as casual (11%).


Found job through agency or labour hire firm

Employees without leave entitlements who did not identify as casual were slightly more likely to have found employment through an employment agency or labour hire firm (13%) than other types of employees (10%).


Earnings vary from month to month (excluding overtime)

Stability of earnings was highest for Employees with paid leave entitlements, with only 14% saying that their earnings varied from month to month. For Self-identified casuals, 57% had earnings that varied.

Graph - Employees, by whether earnings vary



OWNER MANAGERS


Owner managers working on contract

Just over one-quarter (26%) of Owner managers undertook contract work, while 14% of Owner managers working on contract (including Owner managers of incorporated and unincorporated enterprises) were prevented by their employment contract from working for other clients. Fifty five per cent of all Owner managers working on contract said that someone else had authority over their working procedures.

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