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6273.0 - Employment in Culture, Australia, 2001  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 29/05/2003   
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OVERVIEW

In 2001, the Census of Population and Housing collected information on the type of paid work people did in their main job, that is, the one in which they usually worked the most hours. The Census found that 3.1% (259,909 persons) of employed persons in Australia worked in a cultural occupation. The Census also found that some 3.6% (299,266 persons) of employed people worked in a cultural industry.

The diagram below summarises ways in which people can be 'culturally' employed. They can either work in a cultural occupation in a cultural industry; in a cultural occupation but not in a cultural industry; or in a non-cultural occupation but in a cultural industry. In 2001, over half (51.0% or 132,585 persons) the people who were employed in a cultural occupation worked in a non-cultural industry. A librarian employed in a law firm is an example of a cultural occupation within a non-cultural industry.

Of the 299,266 persons employed in a cultural industry, 57.5% (171,942) worked in a non-cultural occupation. A cleaner employed in a museum is an example of a non-cultural occupation within a cultural industry.

Diagram: Cultural Employment - 7 August 2001



Some cultural industries are dominated by people employed in cultural occupations, while for others the percentage of cultural occupations is relatively small. Approximately 85.0% (7,941) of those employed in the Creative arts industry and 79.4% (9,102) of those employed in the Libraries industry worked in a cultural occupation. On the other hand, 16.4% of persons working in the Film and video distribution industry and 15.9% of persons working in the Parks and gardens industry were employed in a cultural occupation.

A high percentage of persons employed as Television journalists (95.7%) or as Print journalists (95.1%) worked in cultural industries. By comparison, a very small percentage of those employed as Dance teachers (private) (1.8%) or Interpreters (1.1%) worked in cultural industries.

Persons 'working' in cultural occupations or industries on a voluntary basis without remuneration are excluded from the tables and analysis presented in this publication.


EMPLOYMENT IN CULTURAL OCCUPATIONS

Of all those employed in Australia in the week prior to the 2001 Census, 259,909 (3.1%) persons had their main job in a cultural occupation. By comparison, in 1996, 229,330 (3.0%) persons had their main job in a cultural occupation. The Census showed that, of those employed in a cultural occupation, the largest numbers were Printing tradespersons (27,679) and Graphic designers (21,144). By comparison, a small number of those employed in a cultural occupation were Script editors (121) or Production assistants (theatre) (85).

SEX

Of all persons employed in cultural occupations as their main job in 2001, 56.1% (145,789) were males, while 43.9% (114,120) were females. In 1996, the percentage of females (42.8%) employed in cultural occupations was slightly lower.

There were considerably more males than females employed in cultural occupations such as Camera operators, Sound technicians and Printing tradespersons. Cultural occupations where females were noticeably predominant were Make-up artists, Library technicians and Dance teachers.

AGE

The 30 to 34 year age group had the largest number of persons employed in cultural occupations (35,443 or 13.6% of all persons employed in cultural occupations). By comparison, in 1996 the 25 to 29 year age group had the largest number (32,637 or 14.2% of all persons employed in cultural occupations).

The cultural occupation with the highest percentage (40.2%) of workers under 20 years of age was Ticket collector or usher. By contrast, approximately two-thirds (69%) of persons employed as a Librarian or Historian were aged 40 years or more.

The age profile of workers in cultural occupations was broadly similar to that of all employed persons in Australia, with the exception of persons aged 15 to 19 years. Persons aged 15 to 19 years represented 6.6% of the employed population. By comparison, they represented 3.2% of all persons employed in cultural occupations. Conversely, for those aged 25 to 34 years, higher percentages were reported in cultural occupations (approximately 13.5%) than in all occupations (approximately 11.8%).

Graph: Age profile of occupations



BIRTHPLACE AND ORIGIN

Approximately 73.2% (190,138) of persons employed in cultural occupations were born in Australia. Another 13.2% (34,234) of those employed in cultural occupations were born in the main English speaking countries while a further 12.3% (31,898) were from non-English speaking countries. By comparison, for all employed persons, 74.2% were born in Australia, 10.7% were born in the main English speaking countries and 13.5% were born in non-English speaking countries. For cultural occupations, similar percentages were reported in the 1996 Census - then 73.3% were born in Australia, 13.7% were born in main English speaking countries and 12.1% were born in non-English speaking countries.

Indigenous Australians made up 1.0% (2,573) of all persons employed in cultural occupations. Relatively high numbers of Indigenous Australians were employed in visual arts and crafts occupations, in particular as Painters (visual arts). Other common cultural occupations of Indigenous Australians were Park rangers and Printing tradespersons.

INCOME

Over one-third (37.3%) of workers in cultural occupations received an income of less than $500 per week. Some 21.8% of those employed in cultural occupations received a weekly income of $500 to $699, 21.6% received between $700 and $999 and 17.6%received $1,000 or more.

The median weekly income for persons working in cultural occupations was $602 compared with $587 for all employed persons.

Approximately 68.2% (2,183) of Ticket collectors or ushers and 50.0% (726) of Potters and ceramic artists received an income of less than $300 per week. In contrast, a high percentage of Environment, parks and landcare managers (83.7%) and Television journalists (79.6%) received an income of at least $700 per week.

HOURS WORKED

Nearly two-thirds of those employed in cultural occupations worked full time (35 hours or more in the week prior to the Census). In 2001, there were 63.5% (165,077) of persons employed in cultural occupations working at least 35 hours per week, while 18.2% (47,416) reported that they worked between 16 and 34 hours, and 12.7% (33,113) between 1 and 15 hours. The percentage of cultural workers in each band was similar in 1996.

Over 85% of Advertising specialists and Environment, parks and landcare managers worked for 35 hours or more per week in 2001. A large proportion of Ticket collectors or ushers (57.8%) and Music teachers (private) (48.8%) worked for 15 hours per week or less in these occupations.

Of all employed persons, 28.5% worked part time (between 1 and 34 hours per week). Approximately 31.0% of those employed in a cultural occupation worked part time.

REGION

About 36.7% (95,444) of persons employed in cultural occupations had New South Wales as their usual place of residence (as distinct from where they actually were on Census night). Some 26.8% (69,598) of those employed in cultural occupations were usual residents of Victoria, 15.7% (40,913) lived in Queensland, 8.7% (22,702) in Western Australia, 6.8% (17,559) in South Australia, 2.4% (6,341) in the Australian Capital Territory, 2.0% (5,117) in Tasmania and 0.9% (2,243) in the Northern Territory. These proportions were similar to those recorded in 1996.

New South Wales, Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory recorded higher percentages of persons employed in cultural occupations than in all occupations.

Graph: State and territory profile of occupations



On average, over three-quarters (76.7% or 199,223) of persons employed in cultural occupations resided in the capital cities. The percentage of 'culturally' employed persons living in a capital city varied widely among the individual states and territories, with the Australian Capital Territory recording the highest percentage (98.3%) and Tasmania the lowest (55.8%).


EMPLOYMENT IN CULTURAL INDUSTRIES

The total number of persons employed in a cultural industry as their main job in the week prior to the 2001 Census was 299,266, compared with 268,826 in 1996. The 2001 Census showed that the two largest cultural industries were the Newspaper, book and stationery retailing industry (38,016 employed persons) and the Architectural services industry (26,723 employed persons). Other large cultural industries, in terms of persons employed, included the Advertising services industry (25,794 employed persons) and the Newspaper printing or publishing industry (25,737 employed persons).

SEX

Of all persons employed in cultural industries as their main job in 2001, 152,120 (50.8%) were males and 147,146 (49.2%) were females. By comparison, of all employed persons, 54.8% were males and 45.2% were females. In 1996, similar percentages of males (51.3%) and females (48.7%) worked in cultural industries.

Cultural industries that attracted a significantly higher percentage of males than females included Sound recording studios (74.2% were males) and Architectural services (68.5% were males). Cultural industries where females were noticeably predominant were Libraries (79.7% were females) and Newspaper, book and stationery retailing (63.0% were females).

AGE

The age profile of workers in cultural industries was very similar to that of all employed persons in Australia.

In both 2001 and 1996, the 25 to 29 year age group had the highest percentage of persons employed in cultural industries compared with other age groups (12.8% and 13.4% respectively).

The cultural industries with the highest percentage of workers under 25 years of age were Video hire outlets (55.2%), Motion picture exhibition (54.7%) and Recorded music retailing (45.2%). The majority of persons employed in the Creative arts (62.1%) and Libraries (57.4%) industries were 40 years of age or more.

BIRTHPLACE AND ORIGIN

Of all persons employed in cultural industries, 75.8% (226,824) were born in Australia. Another 12.7% (37,931) were born in main English speaking countries while a further 10.2% (30,409) were from non-English speaking countries. By comparison, for all employed persons, 74.2% were born in Australia, 10.7% in main English speaking countries and 13.5% in non-English speaking countries. In 1996, persons employed in cultural industries had a similar origin profile to 2001.

The cultural industry with the highest percentage of workers from non-English speaking countries (25.5%) was Recorded media manufacturing and publishing.

Indigenous Australians made up 0.7% (2,234) of all persons employed in cultural industries. The cultural industries employing the highest numbers of Indigenous Australians were the Recreational parks and gardens industry (370), the Newspaper, book and stationery retailing industry (173), the Creative arts industry (172) and the Religious organisations industry (167).

INCOME

Approximately 40.4% of workers employed in cultural industries received an income of less than $500 per week. Some 20.7% of those employed in cultural industries received a weekly income in the $500 to $699 range, 18.7% received between $700 and $999 and 18.5% received $1,000 or more.

The median weekly income for persons working in cultural industries was $577 compared with $587 for all employed persons.

The majority of persons employed in the Video hire outlets industry (57.9%) received an income of less than $300 per week. Other industries with a large percentage of employees receiving an income of less than $300 per week were the Motion picture exhibition industry (47.6%) and the Creative arts industry (33.5%). A relatively high percentage of those employed in the Television services industry (64.6%) and the Recorded media manufacturing and publishing industry (57.5%) received an income of $700 or more per week.

HOURS WORKED

The majority of those employed in cultural industries in 2001 worked full time in the week prior to the Census (35 hours or more per week) - 61.9% (185,189) of persons employed in cultural industries worked at least 35 hours per week. About 18.6% (55,758) reported that they worked 16 to 34 hours per week, and 14.5% (43,325) worked between 1 and 15 hours.

In 2001, there was a lower percentage of persons employed in cultural industries working full time (61.9%) compared with 1996 (65.6%).

Graph: Hours worked profile of industries



Approximately 82.0% of those employed in the Recorded media manufacturing and publishing industry and 78.1% of those in the Television services industry worked 35 hours or more in the week prior to the 2001 Census. The majority of persons working in Video hire outlets (65.2%), Motion picture exhibition (59.8%) and Music and theatre production (54.5%) industries were part-time employees (i.e. worked 1 to 34 hours per week).

Of all employed persons, 10.7% worked between 1 and 15 hours per week, compared with 14.5% of those employed in cultural industries.

STATE AND TERRITORY

Of all persons employed in cultural industries, 38.4% (114,985) had New South Wales as their usual state of residence (as distinct from where they actually were on Census night). Similarly, 25.4% (76,009) had their usual place of residence in Victoria, 16.1% (48,145) in Queensland, 8.6% (25,669) in Western Australia, 6.3% (18,944) in South Australia, 2.3% (6,925) in the Australian Capital Territory, 2.0% (5,925) in Tasmania and 0.9% (2,638) in the Northern Territory. Similar percentages were reported for each state and territory in 1996.

Of those employed in cultural industries, 38.4% resided in New South Wales. By comparison, 33.2% of those employed across all industries had New South Wales as their usual state of residence. There was a lower percentage of persons employed in cultural industries in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia, than in all industries.

Graph: State and territory profile of industries



ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION

This publication presents summary data on selected cultural occupations and industries from the 2001 Census of Population and Housing. The tables in this publication show the number of 'culturally' employed persons in Australia classified by the occupation of their main job and their industry of employment. They also include cross-tabulations with variables such as age, income and hours worked.

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