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TOURISM'S SHARE OF THE AUSTRALIAN ECONOMY, 2001-02
Industry gross value added measures the value of production exclusive of product taxes such as the GST. It is the preferred national accounts measure of the production of industries because it is free from distortions in prices caused by changes in tax rates or the introduction of new taxes over time. The tourism industry share of total industry gross value added for 2001-02 was 4.1% after being steady at 4.3% for all years, except 1998-99 when it was 4.4%.
Tourism industry gross value added grew by 0.6% in 2001-02, while the growth for the whole economy was 6.5%.
GROWTH IN INDUSTRY GROSS VALUE ADDED, CURRENT PRICES
Tourism also contributes significantly to employment and Australia's exports. In 2001-02 the tourism industry's share of total employment dropped slightly to 5.9%, after remaining at 6.0% since 1997- 98. Tourism contributed 11.2% of total exports of goods and services in 2001-02.
Domestic visitors generated 75.5% of tourism industry GDP in 2001-02 while international visitors generated 24.5%.
TOURISM INDUSTRY GROSS VALUE ADDED
In 2001-02, the industries which accounted for the largest share of tourism gross value added were Air and water transport (14%), Accommodation (11%), Cafes, restaurant and takeaway food outlets (10%), and Other retail trade (9%).
TOURISM GROSS VALUE ADDED, By Selected Industries
COMPARISON WITH 'NON-TOURISM' INDUSTRIES
Tourism contributed $26.5 billion to industry gross value added in 2001-02. When compared with the traditional seventeen Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) industry divisions the gross value added of the tourism industry ranks twelfth. Tourism gross value added exceeded that of Agriculture, forestry and fishing, Communication services, Personal and other services, Electricity, gas and water supply, Accommodation, cafes and restaurants, and Cultural and recreational services.
Tourism consumption decreased slightly from $71.3 billion to $70.8 billion between 2000-01 and 2001-02. This was the first decrease in tourism consumption since 1997- 98.
The international visitor share of tourism consumption was 24.1% in 2001-02. Of the remainder, domestic households accounted for 64.3% and domestic business/government visitors accounted for 11.6%.
The bulk of domestic tourism was by those visitors who stayed away overnight (78%), with day visitors accounting for the remainder (22%).
In 2001-02 Long distance passenger transportation represented the largest proportion of tourism consumption at 17%, followed by Shopping, including gifts and souvenirs, and Takeaway and restaurant meals (15%) and then Accommodation services (10%).
There are some marked differences in consumption patterns by type of visitor. Long distance passenger transportation is the dominant tourism product consumed by domestic business/government and international visitors. In contrast, domestic household visitor consumption is dominated by Takeaway and restaurant meals, and Shopping.
SHARE OF TOURISM CONSUMPTION, Selected Tourism Products: By Type of Visitor, 2001-02
Tourism consumption decreased slightly across all sectors during 2001-02. Tourism consumption by households went from $45.9 billion to $45.5 billion, while that for domestic business/government fell marginally to $8.2 billion. International visitor consumption also decreased slightly to be $17.1 billion.
Since 1997- 98 tourism consumption has grown annually up to 2000-01 with 2000-01 showing strong growth of 10%. This growth for 2000-01 mainly reflects the impact of the GST on prices paid. Growth in domestic tourism was strongest in services, which attracted GST for the first time. Also, Recreation, culture and sporting services were particularly boosted by expenditure on tickets for the Olympics.
GROWTH IN TOURISM CONSUMPTION
INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN TOURISM
Tourism makes an important contribution to Australia's export earnings. In 2001-02, international visitors consumed $17.1 billion worth of goods and services produced by the Australian economy. This represented 11.2% of the total exports of goods and services. While tourism exports grew quite strongly between 1997- 98 and 2000-01, so did exports of other goods and services. However both tourism exports and total exports declined in 2001-02.
EXPORTS OF TOURISM GOODS AND SERVICES
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Exports of tourism goods and services compare favourably with other Australian 'traditional' export products. For example, exports of tourism products are greater than Coal, or Iron, steel and non-ferrous metals, but less than Food and live animals.
SELECTED EXPORT COMMODITIES, Percentage of Total Exports
TOURISM EMPLOYED PERSONS
The tourism industry employed 549,000 persons in 2001-02, a marginal decrease on 2000-01. While the tourism share of total employed persons remained constant at 6.0% in each year from 1997- 98, in 2001-02 this share decreased slightly to 5.9%.
The tourism share of total employment is higher than the tourism share of industry gross value added. This is because tourism tends to be more labour intensive, on average, than other forms of economic activity. While the tourism share of employment has decreased marginally in 2001-02, the tourism share of gross value added has also decreased.
Retail trade generated the most tourism employment. Retail trade, Accommodation, and Cafes and restaurants account for more that half of the employment generated by tourism.
Domestic visitor numbers declined in 2001-02 by 4%. This was the second year of decrease since they peaked in 1999-2000. The decrease is due entirely to a decline in same day visitors of 7%, with the number of overnight visitors increasing by 2%.
GROWTH IN DOMESTIC VISITOR NUMBERS
Short-term international visitor arrivals to Australia peaked at over 5 million in 2000-01, but declined during 2001-02 by 5%, reflecting the combined impact of the post Olympic period, world terrorism events and the demise of Ansett Airlines.
GROWTH IN INTERNATIONAL VISITOR NUMBERS
ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION
This publication presents the key results of the Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) for the years 1997-98 to 2001-02. It has been funded by the Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources.
REVISIONS IN THIS ISSUE
The economy wide national accounting aggregates for 1997-98 to 2000-01 have been revised to make them consistent with the December quarter 2002 issue of Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product (cat. no. 5206.0).
No revisions have been made to the tourism estimates for 1997-98 to 1999-2000. At the time of the release of the 2000-01 issue of this publication, data from the Bureau of Tourism Research's (BTR) International Visitor Survey (IVS) for 2000-01 were not available. In this issue the 2000-01 IVS data have been used to revise previously published estimates, with product details of international visitor consumption for 2000-01 being published for the first time.
Visitor arrivals for 2000-01 have been revised since the previous issue of this publication, as a result of revisions to overseas arrivals and departures data compiled by ABS.
Estimates of tourism employment have been revised to incorporate updated measures that have become available for some industries for earlier years.
DATA VALUES AND ROUNDING
All values, unless otherwise indicated, are shown in Australian dollars rounded to the nearest million. Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between the sums of the component items and totals.
The expected release date of the next issue of this publication is April 2004. For that issue the ABS intends to introduce a full-scale TSA in respect of 2000-01. This will provide a new benchmark for subsequent years until the next full-scale TSA is compiled. It is also likely to lead to revisions to the estimates for the years prior to 2000-01.
For further information on the Tourism Satellite Account contact Dianne Bourke on Canberra 02 6252 7243.
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