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8221.0 - Manufacturing Industry, Australia, 2000-01  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 28/10/2002   
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NOTES


ANNUAL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY COLLECTION

The 2000-01 collection was conducted as a survey of approximately 9,500 manufacturing management units. All selected manufacturing management units were asked to provide data on employment, wages and salaries, detailed structural and performance data, value of sales for commodities produced, and whether their products were exported. In total, over 90 data items were collected, details of which are listed in Appendix 1.


ABOUT THIS ISSUE

This is the first publication in this series to present data for manufacturing management units. In previous years, data related to manufacturing establishments. For more details, see Appendix 2. Appendix 3 provides estimates for selected data items for both manufacturing management units and manufacturing establishments for the latest common year, 1999-2000.

Note that final data included in this publication update preliminary data published in Manufacturing Industry, Australia, Preliminary, 2000-01 (cat. no. 8201.0), released on 27 March 2002. The difference between these data are generally greater than has occurred in previous years. It is expected that the relationship between preliminary and final data will be closer in future years as collection and processing experience under the new management units model develops. See the Explanatory Notes paragraphs 4-6 for further information about management units and paragraphs 15-20 regarding the comparability of these final data with statistics for previous years.


DATA TO BE RELEASED IN OTHER PUBLICATIONS

State publications (cat. nos 8221.1 to 8221.6) will not be produced for 2000-01; see Appendix 2 for more details.

A wide range of manufacturing related Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data, as well as data from other sources, will be presented in the compendium publication Manufacturing, Australia, 2002 (cat. no. 8225.0), to be released in February 2003. Management unit data at the total manufacturing level are also included in Business Operations and Industry Performance, Australia, 2000-01 (cat. no. 8140.0).


SUMMARY OF FINDINGS


OVERVIEW

Sales and service income for the year 2000-01 by manufacturing management units operating in Australia was $251,759m, which resulted in an industry value added (IVA) for the year of $71,946m. In current price terms, this represents a 4.8% increase in sales and service income from the $240,145m recorded for 1999-2000 and an increase of 0.8% in IVA. Manufacturing management units employed 945,900 persons at the end of June 2001 and paid $38,746m in wages and salaries in 2000-01.


Comparison across industry

Manufacturing continued to contribute more to Australian production in 2000-01 than any other industry (see the following table on Industry shares of total production), even though manufacturing's share of total Australian production remained steady at 12.8% for 1999-2000 and 2000-01. Manufacturing remained the largest industry in Victoria, Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania and again accounted for a higher proportion of the Victorian economy than in any other state and territory.

INDUSTRY SHARES OF TOTAL PRODUCTION (a), 2000-01

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
Aust.
Industry
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

Agriculture, forestry and fishing
2.6
3.5
4.8
4.9
4.1
6.5
3.5
0.1
3.6
Mining
1.5
1.9
6.1
2.6
23.1
2.1
31.4
-
5.3
Manufacturing
13.1
16.0
10.4
15.0
9.5
14.9
3.5
1.9
12.8
Electricity, gas and water supply
2.3
3.0
2.5
3.2
2.9
6.2
1.6
2.5
2.7
Construction
5.5
5.0
6.3
5.4
6.1
4.6
3.2
5.9
5.5
Wholesale trade
5.1
5.5
5.3
4.3
3.8
3.5
2.2
2.0
4.9
Retail trade
5.1
5.3
7.0
5.7
4.8
6.4
4.2
4.5
5.5
Accommodation, cafes and restaurants
2.9
2.0
3.8
2.9
1.8
3.1
2.9
2.5
2.7
Transport and storage
4.5
4.6
5.5
4.5
4.7
4.6
4.5
3.0
4.7
Communication services
3.2
3.8
3.1
2.9
2.6
3.0
2.9
2.4
3.2
Finance and insurance
8.7
7.6
4.9
6.2
3.9
4.7
2.5
4.2
6.8
Property and business services
14.3
13.5
10.0
10.1
9.7
5.3
7.3
14.3
12.4
Government administration and defence
2.9
2.4
3.8
3.1
2.3
5.1
7.6
25.4
3.4
Education
4.1
4.9
4.8
5.2
3.4
5.2
4.6
5.8
4.5
Health and community services
5.5
6.3
6.1
7.4
5.6
9.0
5.7
5.9
6.0
Cultural and recreational services
2.1
1.9
1.5
1.6
1.3
1.4
2.4
2.7
1.8
Personal and other services
2.1
2.2
2.6
2.9
2.1
2.4
2.4
3.2
2.3
Ownership of dwellings
12.2
8.8
8.7
9.7
6.8
8.8
4.9
8.3
9.7
General government(b)
2.1
1.8
2.9
2.4
1.8
3.2
2.6
5.3
2.2

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Gross factor incomes.
(b) State details for general government gross operating surplus by industry are not available.
Source: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts, 2000-01 (cat. no. 5220.0).


Nationally, the Property and business services industry is now only marginally behind Manufacturing as the largest contributor to production volumes and has been growing at a much faster rate than Manufacturing for many years (see the following table on Production volumes).

Manufacturing was ranked second last in terms of the average annual growth rate over the past 10 years and last over the past 25 years, with increases of 1.2% and 1.8% respectively. By comparison, the highest growth rates were recorded by the Communication services industry with annualised rates of 9.2% and 8.0% for the 10 year and 25 year periods.

PRODUCTION VOLUMES (a)

CHAIN VOLUME
MEASURES
AVERAGE ANNUAL
CHANGE FROM


Change
from
1999-2000
1990-91
to
1975-76
to
1999-2000
2000-01
to 2000-01
2000-01
2000-01

Industry
$m
$m
%
%
%

Agriculture, forestry and fishing
21,491
21,647
0.7
3.8
3.3
Mining
29,285
31,768
8.5
7.8
4.4
Manufacturing
78,924
78,560
-0.5
1.2
1.8
Electricity, gas and water supply
15,953
16,454
3.1
3.0
3.5
Construction
40,551
33,719
-16.8
-5.7
2.9
Wholesale trade
31,434
31,546
0.4
2.9
2.7
Retail trade
33,774
34,091
0.9
2.7
2.8
Accommodation, cafes and restaurants
15,987
16,447
2.9
4.7
3.0
Transport and storage
32,186
32,611
1.3
2.6
3.9
Communication services
18,370
19,836
8.0
9.2
8.0
Finance and insurance
42,164
44,165
4.7
3.8
4.5
Property and business services
69,383
75,057
8.2
6.5
4.9
Government administration and defence
23,378
24,054
2.9
1.6
2.5
Education
28,861
29,287
1.5
1.6
3.5
Health and community services
34,949
37,467
7.2
4.8
3.9
Cultural and recreational services
10,359
11,640
12.4
7.9
3.3
Personal and other services
13,738
14,598
6.3
7.9
3.0
Total all industries
540,787
552,947
2.2
3.3
3.3

(a) Reference year for chain volume measures is 2000-01.
Source: Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product, June Quarter 2002 (cat. no. 5206.0).
Note: The volume estimates contained in this table are derived from quarterly Business Surveys. Therefore, the estimates for Manufacturing are different to volume estimates based on the Annual Manufacturing Survey used elsewhere in this publication.
INDUSTRY VALUE ADDED

Industry value added (at current prices) was $71,946m for 2000-01.

In volume measure terms (i.e. after removal of the effects of price changes - see paragraphs 21 and 22 of the Explanatory Notes), there was a 2.6% decrease over 1999-2000 but a 9.5% increase over the five year period from 1995-96. Since 1995-96, IVA per person employed has risen 15.8%, indicating an increase in labour productivity over the period.

Graph- Volume measures of IVA


Seven of the nine industry subdivisions recorded a decrease in volume measures of IVA over the period 1999-2000 to 2000-01. The largest decreases were recorded by Printing, publishing and recorded media (down 11.8%) closely followed by Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing (down 11.6%). Other significant decreases were recorded by Wood and paper product manufacturing (down 7.4%) and Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing (down 6.1%). The two percentage increases were recorded by Machinery and equipment manufacturing (up 3.2%) and Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (up 2.3%).


Longer-term trends (1995-96 to 2000-01)-volume measures

Over the period 1995-96 to 2000-01, volume measures of IVA increased by 9.5%. Eight industry subdivisions recorded increases while the other recorded a decrease. The largest percentage increases were recorded by Wood and paper product manufacturing (up 19.5%), Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (up 17.4%), Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (up 15.0%) and Machinery and equipment manufacturing (up 12.5%). The only decrease was recorded by Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing (down 13.5%).

Graph- Volume measures of IVA- greatest and least growth



Over the period 1995-96 to 2000-01, there was an increase of 15.8% in volume measures of IVA per person employed. All nine industry subdivisions recorded an increase, with the largest percentage increases being for Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing (up 30.4%), Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (up 22.5%), Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing (up 19.9%) and Machinery and equipment manufacturing (up 19.6%). The smallest increase was recorded by Printing, publishing and recorded media (up 5.1%).

Since 1995-96, growth in IVA per person employed for the total manufacturing industry was 6.3 percentage points higher than growth in IVA, although this is not a consistent pattern across the industry subdivisions.


Current year analysis

Graph- Distribution of IVA and employment across industries



For 2000-01, Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing, Metal product manufacturing, Machinery and equipment manufacturing, and Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing were the subdivisions with the largest contribution to IVA in the manufacturing industry. However, Metal product manufacturing has now replaced Machinery and equipment manufacturing as the second largest contributor. In aggregate, these four industry subdivisions accounted for 72% of total IVA in the manufacturing industry, up from 69% the year before.

The contribution of these industry subdivisions to total manufacturing IVA and the most notable industry groups within those subdivisions (as a percentage of total manufacturing IVA) were:

  • Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (20.4%), where the industry groups Beverage and malt manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 218 at 4.4%), Meat and meat product manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 211 at 3.9%) and Other food manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 217 at 3.6%) were the most substantial.
  • Metal product manufacturing (19.0%), where the industry groups Basic non-ferrous metal manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 272 at 7.2%), Iron and steel manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 271 at 3.6%) and Fabricated metal product manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 276 at 3.2%) were the most substantial.
  • Machinery and equipment manufacturing (18.7%), where the industry groups Motor vehicle and part manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 281 at 6.5%) and Industrial machinery and equipment manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 286 at 4.2%) were the most substantial.
  • Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (13.8%), where the industry groups Other chemical product manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 254 at 5.0%), Plastic product manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 256 at 3.2%) and Basic chemical manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 253 at 3.0%) were the most substantial.

Industry groups making a notable contribution to IVA and not included in the subdivisions listed above included Publishing (ANZSIC Group 242 at 4.9%), Printing and services to printing (ANZSIC Group 241 at 3.9%) and Paper and paper product manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 233 at 3.4%).


EMPLOYMENT

The Australian manufacturing industry employed 945,900 persons at the end of June 2001. As in previous years, Machinery and equipment manufacturing (21.4%), Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (20.0%) and Metal product manufacturing (15.5%) were the major contributors to employment at the end of June 2001. Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing (3.9%) and Other manufacturing (5.7%) remain the smallest contributors.

Although employment rose in five of the nine manufacturing industry subdivisions, total manufacturing employment decreased by 0.9% between June 2000 and June 2001. The industry subdivisions to record a decrease were Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing (down 9.6% from 63,900 persons to 57,800 persons), Printing, publishing and recorded media (down 9.0% from 100,700 persons to 91,600 persons), Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing (down 5.0% from 39,100 persons to 37,200 persons) and Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (down 1.3% from 102,500 persons to 101,300 persons). The largest percentage increases were recorded by Metal product manufacturing (up 3.0% from 142,800 persons to 147,000 persons) and Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (up 2.2% from 185,600 persons to 189,600 persons).


Longer-term trends (June 1996 to June 2001)

Graph- Employment



Employment in the Australian manufacturing industry decreased by 54,600 persons (down 5.5% from 1,000,500 persons to 945,900 persons) over the period June 1996 to June 2001. The June 2001 employment figure is the lowest figure for which management unit data are available, i.e. from June 1996 onwards.

Between June 1996 and June 2001, six industry subdivisions recorded a decrease in their level of employment while three recorded an increase. The largest percentage and absolute decrease was recorded by Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing (down 27.9% from 80,100 persons to 57,800 persons). The next largest percentage decrease in employment was for Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing (down 22.1% from 47,700 persons to 37,200 persons) followed by Metal product manufacturing (down 8.0% from 159,800 persons to 147,000 persons), Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (down 6.1% from 107,800 persons to 101,300 persons) and Machinery and equipment manufacturing (down 5.9% from 214,900 persons to 202,200 persons).

Increases in employment between June 1996 and June 2001 were recorded by Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (up 4.3% from 181,800 persons to 189,600 persons), Other manufacturing (up 4.0% from 52,100 persons to 54,200 persons) and Wood and paper product manufacturing (up 2.4% from 63,500 persons to 65,000 persons).


WAGES AND SALARIES

The Australian manufacturing industry paid $38,746m in wages and salaries in 2000-01. This represents an average of $41,000 paid in annual wages and salaries per person employed, an increase of 2.7% on the $39,900 recorded twelve months earlier. (Readers should note that the employment figure in this average measures the number of persons employed at the end of June and includes working proprietors. The wages and salaries figure excludes the drawings of working proprietors.)

Average wages and salaries paid per person employed at the end of June rose in seven of the nine manufacturing industry subdivisions between 1999-2000 and 2000-01 and fell in the other two. Other manufacturing (up 9.8%) had the largest percentage increase in wages and salaries paid per person employed, with rises in both employment (up 0.2%) and wages and salaries (up 10.1%). The two industry subdivisions to record a fall were: Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (down 3.5%) resulting from a rise in employment (up 2.2%) and a fall in wages and salaries (down 1.4%); and Wood and paper product manufacturing (down 1.8%) also resulting from a rise in employment (up 0.9%) and a fall in wages and salaries (down 1.0%).

The industry subdivisions to record the largest percentage increases in wages and salaries paid per person employed at the end of June were:
  • Other manufacturing (up 9.8% - from $26,500 to $29,100), where all three industry groups recorded an increase, with the largest being:
      • Furniture manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 292) (up 11.3% - from $26,400 to $29,300)
      • Miscellaneous manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 294) (up 5.6% - from $25,900 to $27,400).
    • Printing, publishing and recorded media (up 8.4% - from $38,800 to $42,100), where all three industry groups recorded an increase, with the largest being:
      • Publishing (ANZSIC Group 242) (up 11.8% - from $42,700 to $47,700)
      • Recorded media manufacturing and publishing (ANZSIC Group 243) (up 9.1% - from $38,300 to $41,800).
    • Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (up 8.1% - from $46,500 to $50,200), where 5 (out of 6) industry groups recorded an increase, the other recording a decrease. The largest increases were recorded by:
      • Petroleum refining (ANZSIC Group 251) (up 37.7% - from $71,800 to $98,900)
      • Basic chemical manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 253) (up 8.7% - from $58,100 to $63,100); while
      • Petroleum and coal product manufacturing n.e.c. (ANZSIC Group 252) (down 5.1% - from $59,300 to $56,300) was the industry group to record a decrease.

    The industry groups which had the highest wages and salaries paid per person employed in 2000-01 were Petroleum refining (ANZSIC Group 251) ($98,900), Basic non-ferrous metal manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 272) ($66,100) and Tobacco product manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 219) ($65,000). The industry groups which had the lowest wages and salaries paid per person employed in 2000-01 were Clothing manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 224) ($25,300), Miscellaneous manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 294) ($27,400) and Textile product manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 222) ($29,100).


    SALES AND SERVICE INCOME

    Sales and service income rose, in current price terms, by $11,614m to $251,759m for 2000-01. This represents a 4.8% increase on the $240,145m recorded for 1999-2000.

    Five of the nine manufacturing industry subdivisions recorded an increase in sales and service income between 1999-2000 and 2000-01. Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing remained the largest contributor to total manufacturing sales and service income, while Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing recorded the largest increase in both percentage and dollar terms (up 18.3% or $7,299m). The other industry subdivisions to record an increase between 1999-2000 and 2000-01 were Machinery and equipment manufacturing (up 8.2%), Metal product manufacturing (up 4.6%), Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (up 3.8%) and Other manufacturing (up 1.6%). The industry subdivisions to record a decrease between 1999-2000 and 2000-01 were Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing (down 11.7%), Printing, publishing and recorded media (down 9.0%), Wood and paper product manufacturing (down 2.7%) and Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing (down 2.0%).

    The industry group to record both the largest percentage and dollar increase in sales and service income between 1999-2000 and 2000-01 was Petroleum refining (ANZSIC Group 251) (up 72.3% or $6,719m), while Basic non-ferrous metal manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 272) (up 32.1% or $3,112m) recorded the second largest percentage increase and the third largest dollar increase.

    Other industry groups with large percentage increases between 1999-2000 and 2000-01 were:
    • Leather and leather product manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 226) (up 31.1% or $209m)
    • Prefabricated building manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 291) (up 25.2% or $147m)
    • Recorded media manufacturing and publishing (ANZSIC Group 243) (up 22.2% or $118m).

    Other industry groups with large dollar increases between 1999-2000 and 2000-01 were:
    • Motor vehicle and part manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 281) (up $3,533m or 17.5%)
    • Meat and meat product manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 211) (up $1,882m or 16.9%)
    • Paper and paper product manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 233) (up $1,000m or 14.4%).

    The industry groups with the largest percentage decreases between 1999-2000 and 2000-01 were:
    • Petroleum and coal product manufacturing n.e.c. (ANZSIC Group 252) (down 57.5% or $247m)
    • Knitting mills (ANZSIC Group 223) (down 24.5% or $276m)
    • Ceramic manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 262) (down 22.5% or $341m).

    The industry groups with the largest dollar decreases between 1999-2000 and 2000-01 were:
    • Structural metal product manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 274) (down $1,437m or 19.7%)
    • Publishing (ANZSIC Group 242) (down $1,134m or 12.8%)
    • Cement, lime, plaster and concrete product manufacturing (ANZSIC Group 263) (down $1,001m or 13.9%).


    STATE/TERRITORY COMPARISON

    The highest contribution to Australian sales and service income for 2000-01 was by Victorian manufacturers. Victoria contributed $80,580m (32.0%) to Australian sales and service income followed by New South Wales with $78,659m (31.2%) and Queensland with $40,292m (16.0%).


    Industry value added

    Victoria (at 32.3%) has exceeded New South Wales (at 32.1%) as the major contributor to total manufacturing IVA for Australia in 2000-01. The contribution of the other states and territories in 2000-01 was: Queensland (14.3%), Western Australia (9.4%), South Australia (8.6%), Tasmania (2.4%), Northern Territory (0.4%) and Australian Capital Territory (0.4%). In 1999-2000, the order was New South Wales (33.8%), Victoria (32.3%), Queensland (13.6%), South Australia (8.7%), Western Australia (8.3%), Tasmania (2.5%), Northern Territory (0.4%) and Australian Capital Territory (0.4%).

    The industry subdivision where IVA was most heavily concentrated in a state or territory was Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing in Victoria (at 50.4%). This was followed by Printing, publishing and recorded media in New South Wales (at 40.4%) and, for Victoria, both Machinery and equipment manufacturing (at 39.4%) and Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (at 37.0%).

    The industry subdivision where IVA was heavily concentrated in a state relative to the state's proportion of total Australian manufacturing industry value added was Wood and paper product manufacturing in Tasmania. These manufacturers contributed 6.6% of IVA for this industry in Australia, compared to the total Tasmanian contribution to Australian manufacturing IVA of 2.4%. This was followed by Metal product manufacturing in Western Australia (16.6% compared to 9.4%), Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing in Victoria (50.4% compared to 32.3%) and Machinery and equipment manufacturing in South Australia (13.3% compared to 8.6%).


    Employment

    Victoria and New South Wales were also the states in which manufacturing employment was concentrated at the end of June 2001 with Victoria contributing 31.9% of Australian manufacturing employment and New South Wales 31.3%.

    Employment in the Victorian manufacturing industry, at the end of June 2001, has again exceeded that for New South Wales. There was, however, a marginal decrease of 0.1 percentage points for Victoria and a decrease of 0.6 percentage points for New South Wales on their contribution to total Australian employment recorded 12 months earlier. Western Australia decreased its contribution by 0.2 percentage points (to 7.9%), while both Queensland and South Australia increased their contribution, by 0.6 percentage points (to 16.1%) and 0.4 percentage points (to 9.8%) respectively. The contribution of Tasmania and the territories remained steady over this period.

    Between June 2000 and June 2001, five of the states and territories recorded decreases in employment, two an increase and one remained steady. The decreases were recorded in the Australian Capital Territory (down 5.1% from 4,300 persons to 4,100 persons), Western Australia (down 3.3% from 77,000 persons to 74,500 persons), New South Wales (down 2.8% from 304,100 persons to 295,600 persons), Tasmania (down 2.0% from 21,100 persons to 20,600 persons) and Victoria (down 1.3% from 306,000 persons to 302,200 persons). The increases were recorded in Queensland (up 3.1% from 148,000 persons to 152,700 persons) and South Australia (up 2.9% from 90,200 persons to 92,900 persons). The Northern Territory remained steady at 3,300 persons.


    EMPLOYMENT SIZE

    Note: In interpreting the commentary by employment size, reference should be made to paragraphs 23 and 24 of the Explanatory Notes. This particularly affects the smallest size categories.

    Management units employing 100 or more persons accounted for 54.1% of employment at the end of June 2001 and 66.1% of IVA for 2000-01. Management units employing 20-99 persons accounted for 22.0% of employment and 16.3% of IVA. Small management units (i.e. those employing 0-19 persons) accounted for 23.9% of employment and 17.5% of IVA. Manufacturing management units employing 1,000 or more persons at the end of June 2001 employed 21.0% of all persons working in the manufacturing industry in Australia and contributed 30.1% to IVA.

    These proportions were reflected in the ratios of IVA per person employed at the end of June 2001. Management units employing 0-19 persons and 20-99 persons had a lower ratio ($55,600 and $56,200 respectively) than management units in the larger size categories. Management units employing 100 or more persons recorded an average IVA per person employed of $92,700, with management units employing 1,000 or more persons having a ratio of $108,800.

    Graph- Distribution of Indudtry Value Added - Employment Size



    Omitting Metal product manufacturing (see paragraph 24 of the Explanatory Notes), six of the remaining eight industry subdivisions had more than 65% of IVA contributed by management units employing 100 or more persons. The industries where these larger management units contributed most significantly to IVA were Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (84.7%), Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing (78.1%), Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (71.5%), Wood and paper product manufacturing (67.3%), Machinery and equipment manufacturing (66.8%) and Printing, publishing and recorded media (66.4%).

    Small management units (employing 0-19 persons) made relatively significant contributions to IVA for Other manufacturing (46.4%) and Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing (24.8%).


    EXPORTS

    For 2000-01, Australian manufacturers directly exported $41,871m of the goods that they produced. Exports as a percentage of the total sales of goods produced was 19.2% for 2000-01. Exports as a percentage of sales of goods produced for management units employing 0-49 persons was 15.2%, 50-99 persons was 14.7% and 100 or more persons was 20.7%.

    Excluding Metal product manufacturing (see paragraph 24 of the Explanatory Notes), the industry subdivisions with the largest dollar contribution to direct exports, in all three employment size ranges (i.e. 0-49 persons, 50-99 persons and 100 or more persons) were Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing ($881m, $786m and $10,872m respectively), Machinery and equipment manufacturing ($856m, $505m and $6,505m respectively) and Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing ($708m, $387m and $4,615m respectively).

    The industry subdivisions with the highest proportion of exports compared to sales of goods produced, within the subdivision, were Metal product manufacturing (at 34.2%), Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (at 23.4%) and Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing (at 20.3%).

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