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3321.0.55.001 - Drug Induced Deaths, Australia, 1991-2001  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 15/07/2003   
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CONTENTS

1. Introduction
2. Trends in drug-induced deaths
3. Accidental drug-induced deaths
4. Suicide by drugs
5. Age-specific rates
6. Types of drugs
7. Year of occurrence
8. Years of potential life lost

9. Summary tables:
All drug-induced deaths, 1991-2001, by age and sex
Accidental drug-induced deaths, 1991-2001, by age and sex
Suicides by drugs, 1991-2001, by age and sex
Age standardised drug-induced death rates, 1991-2001, by sex and intent
Years of potential life lost, 1991-2001, drug-induced deaths and deaths due to all causes

Explanatory Notes
References


1. INTRODUCTION

1. Premature deaths due to drug use continue to be of major concern in Australia, despite recent reductions in the number of these deaths. This Information Paper is an update of information originally published in the article 'Drug-related Deaths' in the ABS publication Australian Social Trends, 2001 (cat. no. 4102.0).1 It presents data for drug-induced deaths registered in the years 1991 to 2001 (the latest year for which deaths data are available). Unless otherwise specified, this paper refers to deaths registered by the state and territory Registrars-General during the calendar years in question. For information on year of occurrence data see section 7. The paper incorporates changes to the ABS definition of drug-induced deaths, which were published in the Information Paper Drug-induced Deaths - A Guide to ABS Causes of Death Data (cat. no. 4809.0.55.001) .2

2. Results from the 2001 National Drug Strategy Household Survey indicate that an estimated 2.6 million Australians, or 16.9 % of people aged 14 years and over, had used illicit drugs in the previous 12 months.3 Cannabis was the most prevalent drug used (by 12.9% of total people in this age group), with the potentially more lethal illicit drugs being used by much smaller proportions of people. Amphetamines were used by 3.4% of people aged 14 years and over, ecstasy by 2.9% and heroin by less than 1%.

1.1 Definition - drug-induced deaths

3. ABS definitions relating to causes of death are based on the International Classification of Diseases, revision 10 (ICD-10). The ABS publication Drug-induced deaths - A Guide to ABS Causes of Death Data, defines drug-induced deaths as

"Any death where the underlying cause of death was due to:

  • An acute episode of poisoning or toxicity to drugs. Included are deaths from accidental overdoses due to misuse of drugs, intentional self-harm, assault and deaths undetermined as to intent.
  • An acute condition caused by drug use where the deceased person was identified as drug dependent.

4. The term 'drug' refers to substances classified as drugs, medicaments or biological substances under ICD-10 guidelines. These drugs may by used for medicinal or therapeutic purposes, or to produce a psychoactive effect. The term excludes alcohol, tobacco and volatile solvents (e.g. petrol)."

5. For ABS purposes, drug-induced deaths are defined by the following ICD-10 codes:


ICD-10 CodesDescriptors

F11-F16, F19Mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use (excluding alcohol, tobacco and volatile solvents, e.g. petrol)
F55Abuse of non-dependence-producing substances
X40-X44Accidental poisoning by drugs, medicaments and biologicals
X60-X64Intentional self-harm by drugs, medicaments and biologicals
X85Assault by drugs, medicaments and biological substances
Y10-Y14Deaths of undetermined intent by drugs, medicaments and biologicals


6. In addition, although not part of the ICD-10 itself, this paper classifies drug-induced deaths according to their intent. Accidental drug-induced deaths include ICD-10 codes X40-X44, F11-F16, F19 and F55. Suicide by drugs includes ICD-10 codes X60-X64. This paper also uses the term drug-induced deaths involving opioids to describe drug-induced deaths where opium (ICD-10 code T40.0), heroin (T40.1) other opiates, (such as morphine or codeine, T40.2), methadone (T40.3), other synthetic narcotics (such as pethidine, T40.4) or other and unspecified narcotics (T40.6) were mentioned on official records.

See Explanatory Notes for further details on definitions of drug-induced deaths.

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2. TRENDS IN DRUG-INDUCED DEATHS

7. In 2001 there were 1,038 drug-induced deaths registered, constituting 0.8% of all deaths in that year (see summary table no. 3). This represented a fall of more than one-third from 1999, when drug-induced deaths registered in Australia peaked at 1,739 (1.4% of all registered deaths). Between 1999 and 2001 the standardised drug-induced death rate decreased by over 40%, from 9.1 to 5.3 registered deaths per 100,000 persons.

8. The decrease in drug-induced deaths was primarily related to a fall in deaths due to heroin use, particularly amongst men. In 1999 the standardised rate of drug-induced deaths involving opioids was 6.5 per 100,000 persons (9.8 males, 3.2 females). By 2001 this had fallen to 2.6 per 100,000 population (3.8 males, 1.5 females).

FIGURE 1 - DRUG-INDUCED DEATH RATES, Australia, 1991-2001

FIGURE 1 - DRUG-INDUCED DEATH RATES, Australia, 1991-2001


9. The reduction in the drug-induced death rate was not uniform across the states. Starting from a far higher level, the largest decreases were in New South Wales and Victoria. There were smaller decreases in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. As a result, the significant differences in the standardised drug-induced death rates between the larger states visible in 1999 have been substantially reduced. Rates for Tasmania, the Northern Territory or the Australian Capital Territory are not calculated and presented here for individual years, due to the small numbers of drug-induced deaths involved, and the unreliability of any comparisons that might be made.


FIGURE 2A - MALE DRUG-INDUCED DEATH RATES BY STATE,
1999 and 2001

FIGURE 2A - MALE DRUG-INDUCED DEATH RATES BY STATE, 1999 and 2001

FIGURE 2B - FEMALE DRUG-INDUCED DEATH RATES BY STATE,
1999 and 2001

FIGURE 2B - FEMALE DRUG-INDUCED DEATH RATES BY STATE,  1999 and 2001



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3. ACCIDENTAL DRUG-INDUCED DEATHS

10. Drug-induced deaths are usually the result of an unintentional overdose or the effects of prolonged misuse of drugs. This remained the case in 2001, despite a more substantial decrease in accidental deaths due to drugs than in the overall drug-induced death rate. Accidental drug-induced deaths fell from 7.3 per 100,000 persons in 1999 to 3.7 in 2001 (standardised figures).

11. The standardised accidental drug-induced death rate for males decreased from 10.9 deaths per 100,000 persons in 1999 to 5.0 in 2001. In comparison the corresponding rate for females fell from 3.8 to 2.3 deaths per 100,000 persons. Consequently, the large gap between the female and male rates observed in 1999 has narrowed considerably. The standardised male accidental drug-induced death rate is now around twice as high as the female rate.

FIGURE 3 - ACCIDENTAL DRUG-INDUCED DEATH RATES, Australia, 1991-2001
FIGURE 3 - ACCIDENTAL DRUG-INDUCED DEATH RATES, Australia, 1991-2001


12. The use of heroin (an opioid) has been a focus of public debate on drug use during the past decade. Increased heroin use was largely responsible for the increase in accidental drug-induced deaths during the 1980s and 1990s. In 1999 opioids were involved in 77% of accidental drug-induced deaths. However, in 2001 this had declined to 58%. This fall was less pronounced amongst males (from 80% to 63%) than females (from 68% to 47%). In 1999 there were 1,084 accidental drug-induced deaths involving opioids (840 male, 244 female), but this fell to 413 in 2001 (304 male, 109 female). As an age standardised rate, accidental drug-induced deaths involving opioids fell from 5.6 deaths per 100,000 persons in 1999 (8.7 males, 2.6 females) to 2.1 in 2001 (3.2 males, 1.1 females). A fall in accidental drug-induced deaths involving opioids thus constituted the major contributor to the fall in the absolute number of drug-induced deaths (see figure 4).

13. This fall in deaths involving opioids seems to have been due to a shortage of heroin supply in Australia, also known as a 'heroin drought'. Results from the Illicit Drug Reporting System, administered by the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, indicate that "there was a dramatic reduction in the availability of heroin observed in all jurisdictions in which heroin had for some years been freely available" which "began in late 2000/early 2001, and was sustained throughout the first half of 2001".4 Furthermore, the shortage in supply seems to have resulted in decreased heroin usage. These findings have been corroborated by a study conducted by the NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research.5 Declining heroin use was also detected by the 2001 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, with the percentage of respondents reporting heroin use in the last 12 months falling from 0.8% in 1998 to 0.2% in 2001.6 While the results of these studies should to be treated with some caution, due to the relatively small sample size of the surveys involved, taken together they offer strong evidence of a decrease in heroin usage. This would largely account for the fall in accidental drug-induced deaths.

FIGURE 4 - RATE OF ACCIDENTAL DRUG-INDUCED DEATHS INVOLVING OPIOIDS, Australia, 1997-2001

FIGURE 4 - RATE OF ACCIDENTAL DRUG-INDUCED DEATHS INVOLVING OPIOIDS, Australia, 1997-2001


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4. SUICIDE BY DRUGS

14. In contrast to accidental drug-induced deaths, suicides involving drugs did not show any significant change between 1999 and 2001. The standardised death rate for suicides by drugs remained steady at 1.5 deaths per 100,000 persons. The relatively equal distribution of suicides by drugs between males and females also remained (see figure 5).

15. This stability in suicide rates by drugs was consistent with the overall suicide figures between 1999-2001. The standardised suicide rate for all methods for males fell slightly from 22 deaths per 100,000 persons in 1999 to 20 in 2001, while the corresponding rate for females remained steady at 5 deaths per 100,000 persons. Consequently, the proportion of all suicides using drugs increased only slightly for females between 1999-2001, from 24% to 26%, while remaining stable for males at 8%.

16. In 2001 there were 285 suicides by drugs, accounting for 12% of all suicides in that year. Drugs were used in 26% of the suicides of females, making it the second most common method after hanging and strangulation (38%). Drugs were used in 8% of suicides by males, making it the fourth most common method after hanging and strangulation (44%), exposure to gases (mostly carbon monoxide from motor vehicle exhaust) (21%) and firearms (13%).

FIGURE 5 - RATES OF SUICIDE BY DRUGS, Australia, 1991-2001
Graph - ATES OF SUICIDE BY DRUGS, Australia, 1991-2001

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5. AGE-SPECIFIC RATES

17. The tendency of people to die from drug-induced causes varied according to age group. In addition, the age profile of people who died accidentally from drug-induced causes differed substantially from those who suicided using drugs.

18. In 2001, rates of accidental drug-induced deaths were highest among young adults, peaking at 8 deaths per 100,000 persons among both 25-29 and 30-34 year-olds. In 1999 the drug-induced deaths peaked amongst 25-29 year-olds alone.

19. Although there was some fluctuation in age-specific rates of suicide by drugs, they were relatively stable compared to accidental drug-induced deaths. In 2001 suicide by drugs peaked at 3.4 deaths per 100,000 persons amongst those aged 85 years and over. However, the rate was between 1 and 3 deaths per 100,000 persons for all ages between 20 and 84 years. The age profile of people committing suicide by drugs was also different to that of people using other methods. As a proportion of all suicides, drug suicides increased with age, with 15% of suicides of people aged over 50 years from drugs, compared with 7% for those aged less than thirty years.

FIGURE 6 - AGE-SPECIFIC DRUG-INDUCED DEATH RATES, Australia, 2001

FIGURE 6 - AGE-SPECIFIC DRUG-INDUCED DEATH RATES, Australia, 2001

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    6. TYPES OF DRUGS

    20. Because of the pharmacological interactions between different drugs, using a mixture of drugs is more likely to result in adverse health effects, including death, than use of a single type of drug. For example, alcohol increases the effects of some drugs, and was present in 18% of accidental drug-induced deaths as a contributing factor, rather than as the drug that ultimately caused the death.

    21. In 2001, opium, heroin and other opioids were involved in 36% of accidental drug-induced deaths, benzodiazepines were involved in 23% and other narcotics and hallucinogens were involved in 18%. Opium, heroin and other opioids were involved in the highest proportions of accidental drug-induced deaths of both males and females (39% and 29% respectively). However, the accidental deaths of females were more likely to involve benzodiazepines (28%) and antidepressants (23%) than those of males (21% and 11% respectively). The accidental deaths of females were less likely than males to involve other narcotics and hallucinogens (14% and 20% respectively). Alcohol was also present in combination with other drugs in 18% of accidental drug-induced deaths, although it was not the underlying cause of death.

    22. The drugs used most commonly in suicides were benzodiazepines, antidepressants and opium, heroin and other opioids, which were involved in 28%, 28% and 20% of all suicides by drugs respectively. 4-Aminophenol derivatives such as paracetemol were more likely to be used by females who suicided than by males (13% and 9% respectively), while females were less likely than males to use benzodiazepines (25% and 31% respectively). Alcohol was also used in combination with other drugs in 13% of suicides by drugs, although it was not the underlying cause of death.

    23. Consistent with the changing pattern of underlying drug-induced deaths, there was a substantial decrease in the total proportion of drug-induced deaths involving opium, heroin and other opioids, from 58% in 1999 to 31% in 2001. This decrease could be seen amongst both males and females (63% to 35% and 46% to 25% respectively). However, there was an overall increase in the proportion of drug-induced deaths involving methadone, from 8% in 1999 to 10% in 2001.


    TABLE 1 - MAIN TYPES OF DRUGS CONTRIBUTING TO DRUG-INDUCED DEATHS (a), Australia, 2001, as a percentage of drug-induced deaths (b), by sex and intent


    ACCIDENTAL
    SUICIDE

    EXAMPLE/COMMON NAME
    MALES
    FEMALES
    MALES
    FEMALES


    %
    %
    %
    %

    T39.1 4-Aminophenol derivativesParacetemol
    3
    10
    9
    13
    T40.0-40.2 Opium, heroin & other opioidsHeroin, morphine
    39
    29
    22
    17
    T40.3 MethadoneMethadone
    15
    10
    6
    1
    T40.4-40.9 Other narcotics & hallucinogensPethadine, cocaine, cannabis
    20
    14
    10
    5
    T42.4 BenzodiazepinesValium
    21
    28
    31
    25
    T43.0-43.2 AntidepressantsProzac
    11
    23
    28
    28
    T43.3-43.5 Antipsychotics and neurolepticsPromazine
    1
    5
    4
    7
    T43.6 PsychostimulantsAmphetamines
    8
    7
    2
    1
    T51 Alcohol (c)Alcohol
    18
    18
    14
    11

    Long term organ damage (d)
    3
    2
    1
    0

    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    Total number of deaths
    480
    230
    151
    134

    (a) Drugs mentioned on official records. These drugs may be the underlying cause, or may be a contributing part of a mixture of drugs which led to the death.
    (b) Death may be caused by more than one drug and therefore component percentages do not add to one hundred.
    (c) Alcohol is not included in the scope of poisoning in this article. Therefore alcohol is not the underlying cause of death, but taken in conjunction with other drugs, has led to these deaths.
    (d) Deaths attributed to long-term organ damage are drug-induced deaths where no poisons were identified in the body of the deceased at the time of post-mortem.


    TABLE 2 - AVERAGE NUMBER OF DRUGS (a) PER DRUG-INDUCED DEATH, Australia, 2001, for main types of drugs (b), by sex and intent


    ACCIDENTAL
    SUICIDE


    EXAMPLE/COMMON NAME
    MALES
    FEMALES
    MALES
    FEMALES

    T39.1 4-Aminophenol derivativesParacetemol
    2.5
    4.0
    3.1
    3.6
    T40.0-40.2 Opium, heroin & other opioidsHeroin, morphine
    2.0
    2.9
    2.7
    3.3
    T40.3 MethadoneMethadone
    2.2
    2.5
    2.4
    3.5
    T40.4-40.9 Other narcotics & hallucinogensPethadine, cocaine, cannabis
    2.3
    2.2
    3.1
    2.9
    T42.4 BenzodiazepinesValium
    2.9
    3.3
    2.7
    3.2
    T43.0-43.2 AntidepressantsProzac
    3.1
    3.0
    2.5
    2.7
    T43.3-43.5 Antipsychotics and neurolepticsPromazine
    3.7
    2.9
    2.2
    2.3
    T43.6 PsychostimulantsAmphetamines
    2.5
    2.9
    4.0
    4.0
    T51 AlcoholAlcohol
    2.5
    2.8
    2.9
    3.3

    Total (c)
    1.7
    1.9
    1.8
    1.8

    (a) Drugs mentioned on official records. These drugs may be the underlying cause, or may be a contributing part of a mixture of drugs which lead to the death. Codes included are (T36-T50) Poisoning by Drugs,Medicaments and Biological substances and (T51) Toxic Effect of Alcohol.
    (b) Average number of drugs amongst deaths where each type of drug was mentioned on death certificate.
    (c) Includes all drug-induced deaths, even if no poison code was mentioned on death certificate.

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    7. YEAR OF OCCURRENCE

    24. Information contained in the preceding sections of this paper refers to deaths registered by the state and territory Registrars-General during the calendar years in question. The following graph compares drug-induced death rates by year of registration and year of occurrence (see Explanatory Notes). There is very little difference between year of registration and year of occurrence figures, as around 89% of drug-induced deaths occurring in a particular year are registered in that year. This compares to around 95% for all deaths. Delays in registration of drug-induced deaths are more likely due to coroner deliberations.

    FIGURE 7 - DRUG-INDUCED DEATHS, YEAR OF REGISTRATION AND YEAR OF OCCURRENCE (a), Australia, 1991-2001

    FIGURE 7 - DRUG-INDUCED DEATHS, YEAR OF REGISTRATION AND YEAR OF OCCURRENCE (a), Australia, 1991-2001
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    8. YEARS OF POTENTIAL LIFE LOST (YPLL)

    25. Years of potential life lost is a measure of premature mortality, and is calculated based on deaths between the ages of 1 and 75 years. There were 37,356 years of potential life lost due to drug-induced deaths for the 2001 registration year. Drug-induced deaths accounted for 0.8% of registered deaths of all ages, and 1.9% of deaths between the ages of 1 and 75 years. Because drug-induced deaths occur generally in younger age groups, they represented 4.5% of the total years of potential life lost from all causes. See Table 7 for more details.


    9. SUMMARY TABLES


    TABLE 3 - ALL DRUG-INDUCED DEATHS (a), 1991-2001, by age and sex


    Year of
    15 - 24
    25 - 34
    35 - 44
    45 - 54
    55 - 64
    65 - 74
    75 & over
    Total (b)
    registration
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.

    MALES

    1991
    95
    195
    130
    47
    23
    23
    15
    529
    1992
    114
    253
    116
    46
    26
    21
    10
    587
    1993
    97
    231
    140
    52
    23
    15
    8
    566
    1994
    135
    245
    177
    71
    17
    19
    8
    674
    1995
    145
    325
    218
    74
    28
    18
    11
    822
    1996
    160
    305
    207
    78
    18
    11
    10
    795
    1997
    162
    332
    279
    74
    23
    17
    10
    902
    1998
    220
    475
    308
    93
    26
    25
    22
    1,172
    1999
    228
    488
    333
    114
    38
    20
    21
    1,244
    2000
    200
    388
    331
    97
    21
    23
    14
    1,078
    2001
    101
    217
    171
    86
    41
    17
    19
    657

    FEMALES

    1991
    50
    94
    63
    45
    42
    17
    15
    328
    1992
    50
    102
    63
    52
    30
    21
    23
    344
    1993
    46
    76
    75
    32
    28
    24
    14
    299
    1994
    44
    91
    85
    52
    21
    24
    16
    336
    1995
    68
    87
    86
    62
    26
    18
    16
    363
    1996
    47
    87
    96
    66
    21
    16
    12
    347
    1997
    75
    119
    93
    59
    27
    30
    16
    421
    1998
    74
    105
    123
    66
    27
    31
    42
    473
    1999
    87
    142
    119
    73
    33
    20
    20
    495
    2000
    70
    118
    142
    59
    50
    27
    21
    491
    2001
    43
    79
    104
    75
    35
    19
    24
    381

    PERSONS

    1991
    145
    289
    193
    92
    65
    40
    30
    857
    1992
    164
    355
    179
    98
    56
    42
    33
    931
    1993
    143
    307
    215
    84
    51
    39
    22
    865
    1994
    179
    336
    262
    123
    38
    43
    24
    1,010
    1995
    213
    412
    304
    136
    54
    36
    27
    1,185
    1996
    207
    392
    303
    144
    39
    27
    22
    1,142
    1997
    237
    451
    372
    133
    50
    47
    26
    1,323
    1998
    294
    580
    431
    159
    53
    56
    64
    1,645
    1999
    315
    630
    452
    187
    71
    40
    41
    1,739
    2000
    270
    506
    473
    156
    71
    50
    35
    1,569
    2001
    144
    296
    275
    161
    76
    36
    43
    1,038

    (a) ICD-10 codes F11-F16, F19, F55, X40-X44, X60-X64, X85 and Y10-Y14.
    (b) Total includes under 15 years and age not stated.

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    TABLE 4 - ACCIDENTAL DRUG INDUCED DEATHS (a), 1991-2001, by age and sex


    Year of
    15 - 24
    25 - 34
    35 - 44
    45 - 54
    55 - 64
    65 - 74
    75 & over
    Total (b)
    Registration
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.

    MALES

    1991
    64
    126
    50
    14
    6
    3
    4
    268
    1992
    72
    177
    69
    15
    7
    0
    4
    345
    1993
    70
    188
    100
    27
    10
    4
    2
    401
    1994
    105
    178
    122
    31
    3
    5
    2
    447
    1995
    104
    250
    156
    36
    7
    4
    5
    565
    1996
    123
    233
    149
    41
    6
    4
    6
    566
    1997
    131
    267
    208
    45
    4
    7
    4
    670
    1998
    193
    407
    257
    59
    12
    13
    15
    958
    1999
    204
    440
    281
    84
    13
    11
    9
    1,044
    2000
    185
    352
    278
    72
    11
    13
    6
    921
    2001
    85
    177
    123
    52
    26
    4
    9
    480

    FEMALES

    1991
    17
    44
    18
    9
    8
    5
    0
    103
    1992
    25
    57
    11
    13
    5
    2
    5
    120
    1993
    29
    49
    42
    8
    11
    12
    3
    157
    1994
    29
    56
    43
    21
    8
    6
    6
    172
    1995
    48
    57
    41
    22
    6
    6
    7
    187
    1996
    29
    50
    38
    24
    4
    5
    6
    157
    1997
    51
    82
    53
    27
    13
    13
    7
    246
    1998
    55
    68
    74
    42
    9
    16
    18
    285
    1999
    77
    101
    94
    43
    21
    13
    9
    359
    2000
    65
    91
    100
    41
    31
    11
    10
    353
    2001
    33
    56
    61
    37
    18
    10
    13
    230

    PERSONS

    1991
    81
    170
    68
    23
    14
    8
    4
    371
    1992
    97
    234
    80
    28
    12
    2
    9
    465
    1993
    99
    237
    142
    35
    21
    16
    5
    558
    1994
    134
    234
    165
    52
    11
    11
    8
    619
    1995
    152
    307
    197
    58
    13
    10
    12
    752
    1996
    152
    283
    187
    65
    10
    9
    12
    723
    1997
    182
    349
    261
    72
    17
    20
    11
    916
    1998
    248
    475
    331
    101
    21
    29
    33
    1243
    1999
    281
    541
    375
    127
    34
    24
    18
    1403
    2000
    250
    443
    378
    113
    42
    24
    16
    1274
    2001
    118
    233
    184
    89
    44
    14
    22
    710

    (a) ICD-10 codes F11-F16, F19, F55 and X40-X44.
    (b) Total includes under 15 years and age not stated.

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    TABLE 5 - SUICIDES BY DRUGS (a), 1991-2001, by age and sex


    Year of
    15 - 24
    25 - 34
    35 - 44
    45 - 54
    55 - 64
    65 - 74
    75 & over
    Total (b)
    Registration
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.

    MALES

    1991
    24
    47
    68
    28
    14
    16
    11
    208
    1992
    29
    50
    34
    23
    12
    18
    6
    172
    1993
    22
    31
    33
    22
    11
    11
    5
    135
    1994
    25
    52
    44
    34
    13
    14
    6
    188
    1995
    25
    50
    49
    32
    20
    12
    6
    194
    1996
    19
    43
    46
    32
    11
    7
    4
    163
    1997
    17
    42
    50
    21
    17
    7
    6
    160
    1998
    16
    47
    36
    29
    11
    11
    7
    157
    1999
    15
    32
    40
    28
    23
    9
    11
    158
    2000
    14
    30
    48
    25
    10
    9
    8
    144
    2001
    14
    28
    41
    32
    14
    13
    9
    151

    FEMALES

    1991
    27
    39
    35
    30
    27
    8
    14
    180
    1992
    20
    38
    45
    27
    19
    15
    14
    179
    1993
    16
    22
    29
    24
    15
    11
    10
    127
    1994
    13
    28
    35
    30
    12
    16
    8
    142
    1995
    15
    25
    38
    39
    17
    12
    8
    154
    1996
    15
    29
    49
    39
    15
    11
    6
    165
    1997
    18
    29
    36
    28
    11
    16
    9
    149
    1998
    14
    33
    39
    19
    14
    13
    21
    153
    1999
    7
    35
    23
    27
    11
    7
    10
    120
    2000
    5
    22
    41
    18
    18
    14
    11
    129
    2001
    9
    20
    34
    35
    17
    8
    11
    134

    PERSONS

    1991
    51
    86
    103
    58
    41
    24
    25
    388
    1992
    49
    88
    79
    50
    31
    33
    20
    351
    1993
    38
    53
    62
    46
    26
    22
    15
    262
    1994
    38
    80
    79
    64
    25
    30
    14
    330
    1995
    40
    75
    87
    71
    37
    24
    14
    348
    1996
    34
    72
    95
    71
    26
    18
    10
    328
    1997
    35
    71
    86
    49
    28
    23
    15
    309
    1998
    30
    80
    75
    48
    25
    24
    28
    310
    1999
    22
    67
    63
    55
    34
    16
    21
    278
    2000
    19
    52
    89
    43
    28
    23
    19
    273
    2001
    23
    48
    75
    67
    31
    21
    20
    285

    (a) ICD-10 codes X60-X64.
    (b) Total includes under 15 years and age not stated.

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    TABLE 6 - AGE STANDARDISED DRUG-INDUCED DEATH RATES (a), 1991-2001, by sex and intent


    Year of registration
    Accidental drug-induced deaths (b)
    Suicides by drugs (c)
    Total drug-induced deaths (d)

    MALES

    1991
    2.9
    2.5
    6.0
    1992
    3.7
    2.0
    6.5
    1993
    4.3
    1.6
    6.2
    1994
    4.8
    2.1
    7.3
    1995
    6.0
    2.2
    8.9
    1996
    5.9
    1.8
    8.4
    1997
    7.0
    1.8
    9.5
    1998
    10.1
    1.7
    12.4
    1999
    10.9
    1.7
    13.0
    2000
    9.6
    1.5
    11.2
    2001
    5.0
    1.6
    6.8

    FEMALES

    1991
    1.2
    2.1
    3.8
    1992
    1.3
    2.1
    3.9
    1993
    1.7
    1.5
    3.4
    1994
    1.9
    1.6
    3.7
    1995
    2.0
    1.7
    4.0
    1996
    1.7
    1.8
    3.8
    1997
    2.6
    1.6
    4.5
    1998
    3.0
    1.6
    5.0
    1999
    3.8
    1.3
    5.2
    2000
    3.7
    1.3
    5.1
    2001
    2.3
    1.4
    3.9

    PERSONS

    1991
    2.0
    2.3
    4.9
    1992
    2.5
    2.0
    5.2
    1993
    3.0
    1.5
    4.8
    1994
    3.3
    1.9
    5.5
    1995
    4.0
    2.0
    6.4
    1996
    3.8
    1.8
    6.1
    1997
    4.8
    1.7
    7.0
    1998
    6.5
    1.7
    8.7
    1999
    7.3
    1.5
    9.1
    2000
    6.6
    1.4
    8.1
    2001
    3.7
    1.5
    5.3

    (a) Directly standardised to 2001 Australian population.
    (b) ICD-10 codes F11-F16, F19, F55 and X40-X44.
    (c) ICD-10 codes X60-X64.
    (d) ICD-10 codes F11-F16, F19, F55, X40-X44, X60-X64, X85 and Y10-Y14.


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    TABLE 7 - YEARS OF POTENTIAL LIFE LOST (YPLL) (a), 1991-2001, drug-induced deaths and deaths due to all causes


    Year of registration
    Number of deaths (b)
    Years of potential life lost (c)
    Drug-induced deaths as a percentage of total

    DRUG-INDUCED
    ALL CAUSES
    DRUG INDUCED
    ALL CAUSES
    DEATHS (b)
    YPLL
    no.
    no.
    no.
    no.
    %
    %

    1991
    829
    59,784
    30,684
    975,115
    1.4
    3.1
    1992
    898
    60,386
    33,812
    968,959
    1.5
    3.5
    1993
    845
    58,928
    31,929
    943,164
    1.4
    3.4
    1994
    987
    59,683
    37,709
    937,848
    1.7
    4.0
    1995
    1,159
    58,994
    44,875
    935,556
    2.0
    4.8
    1996
    1,121
    58,914
    43,817
    930,280
    1.9
    4.7
    1997
    1,299
    58,472
    50,877
    930,150
    2.2
    5.5
    1998
    1,584
    56,782
    62,810
    911,642
    2.8
    6.9
    1999
    1,703
    55,632
    68,100
    890,655
    3.1
    7.6
    2000
    1,536
    54,232
    60,969
    864,591
    2.8
    7.1
    2001
    996
    53,351
    37,356
    831,513
    1.9
    4.5

    (a) YPLL measures the extent of premature mortality which is assumed to be any death occurring between ages 1 and 75 inclusive.
    (b) Deaths occurring between ages 1-75 years inclusive.
    (c) YPLL age-standardised to 2001 Australian population - see Technical Note in ABS publication 'Causes of Death, Australia 2001', cat. no. 3303.0.8


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