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6359.0 - Forms of Employment, Australia, November 2011 Quality Declaration 
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/04/2012   
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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS


OVERVIEW

In November 2011, there were approximately 11.4 million employed persons aged 15 years and over. Of these, 7.1 million (62%) were employees with paid leave entitlements, that is, they were entitled to paid sick and/or paid holiday leave. Of the remaining employed persons:

  • 2.2 million were employees without paid leave entitlements;
  • 1.0 million were independent contractors; and
  • 1.0 million were other business operators.


EMPLOYEES

Of the 9.3 million persons who were employees, 4.8 million were males and 4.5 million were females.

EMPLOYEES, MALES, Selected industries of main job
Graph: employees, MALES, Selected industries of main job


EMPLOYEES, FEMALES, By selected industries of main job
Graph: Employees, Females, By selected industries of main job


For males, the industry Division with the most employees was Manufacturing (13%) followed by Construction (11%). However for females, the industry Division with the most employees was Health care and social assistance (22%), followed by Retail trade (14%), and Education and training (13%).

For both males and females, the occupation group with the highest proportion of employees with paid leave entitlements was Managers (95% and 91% respectively). This was followed by Professionals for both males and females (91% and 89% respectively). The occupation group with the lowest proportion of males with paid leave entitlements was Labourers (56%). By comparison, the occupation group with the lowest proportion of females with paid leave entitlements was Sales workers (46%).

An estimated 6.4 million (69%) employees were full-time workers in their main job. Most employees who were full-time workers in their main job had paid leave entitlements (89%). By comparison, of the 2.8 million part-time workers, less than half (46%) had paid leave entitlements.

Other characteristics of employees in November 2011 include:
  • 24% had been with their current employer for less than 1 year, while 21% had been with their current employer for 10 years or more;
  • 19% were aged 15-24 years, and 14% were aged 55 years and over;
  • 40% had some say in their start and finish times;
  • 69% worked weekdays only in their job/s1, while a further 30% worked both weekdays and weekends; and
  • Only 4% worked on a fixed-term contract, of whom 48% were Professionals.

Of the 7.1 million persons who were employees with paid leave entitlements, 54% were males. The industry Division with the highest proportion of males with paid leave entitlements was Financial and insurance services (93%) and for females it was Public administration and safety (92%). The industry Division with the lowest proportion of males and females with paid leave entitlements was Accommodation and food services (41% and 32% respectively).

Of the 2.2 million persons who were employees without paid leave entitlements, 55% were females. The industry Division with the highest proportion of males and females without paid leave entitlements was Accommodation and food services (59% and 68% respectively). The industry Division with the lowest proportion of males without paid leave entitlements was Financial and insurance services (7%) and for females it was Public administration and safety (8%).


INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS

There were 1.0 million persons who were independent contractors in their main job in November 2011. The majority (73%) of these were males. Almost half (47%) of all independent contractors actually worked 40 hours or more in their main job (57% of males and 20% of females).

Female independent contractors were more likely to work fewer hours than males. For example, one-third (33%) of female independent contractors worked fewer than 15 hours in their main job, compared with 14% of male independent contractors. A further 25% of females worked 15-24 hours in their main job compared with 10% of males.

Around half of all independent contractors (50% of males and 54% of females) were in the 35-54 year age groups.

Independent contractors were most likely to work in the Construction industry Division (32%), followed by the Professional, scientific and technical services industry (13%). Male independent contractors were more likely to work in the Construction industry Division (41%), followed by the Professional, scientific and technical services industry (11%). By comparison, female independent contractors were most likely to work in the Professional, scientific and technical services industry Division (18%), followed by the Health care and social assistance industry (15%).

INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS, MALES, By occupation of main job
Graph: Independent contractors, Males, By occupation of main job


INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS, FEMALES, By occupation of main job
Graph: Independent contractors, female, By occupation of main job


For males, the occupation group with the most independent contractors was Technicians and trades workers (37%), followed by Professionals (16%). However for females, the most independent contractors worked as Professionals (33%), followed by Clerical and administrative workers (20%).

Most independent contractors (76%) were usually able to work on more than one active contract, however just under half (47%) of all independent contractors had more than one active contract in the reference week.

Other characteristics of independent contractors in November 2011 include:
  • 60% had authority over their own work (60% of males and 61% of females);
  • 66% were able to (sub)contract their own work (71% of males and 55% of females);
  • 80% had no employees (77% of males and 86% of females);
  • 14% had been with their current business for less than 1 year, while 39% had been with their current business for 10 years or more;
  • 82% had some say in their start or finish times; and
  • 58% worked weekdays only in their job/s1, while a further 42% worked on both weekdays and weekends.


OTHER BUSINESS OPERATORS

There were approximately 1.0 million other business operators in November 2011, of whom 62% were males. For both males and females, over half of business operators were in the 35-54 year age group (52% and 59% respectively).

Other business operators who were males were most likely to work in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing industry Division (16%), followed by the Construction industry (12%), Professional, scientific and technical services (11%) and retail trade industry (10%). For females, the most common industry Divisions were Retail trade (14%) and Agriculture, forestry and fishing (13%).

OTHER BUSINESS OPERATORS, MALES, By occupation of main job
Graph: Other business operators, males, By occupation of main job


OTHER BUSINESS OPERATORS, FEMALES, By occupation of main job
Graph: Other business operators, females, By occupation of main job


The most common occupation of other business operators for both males and females was Managers (43% and 33% respectively).

For males, the next most common occupations were Professionals (20%) and Technicians and trades workers (18%). For females, the next most common occupation was Clerical and administrative workers (24%).

Other characteristics of other business operators in November 2011 include:
  • 58% actually worked 40 hours or more in their main job (71% of males and 38% of females) in the reference week, while almost two-thirds (65%) of these actually worked 49 or more hours in the reference week;
  • 8% had been in their current business for less than 1 year, while almost half (49%) had been with their current business for 10 years or more;
  • 89% had some say in their start or finish times; and
  • 46% worked weekdays only in their job/s1, while a further 54% worked on both weekdays and weekends.


ALL EMPLOYED PERSONS

Younger persons were most likely to be employees rather than independent contractors or other business operators. As age increases, generally, the proportion of employees decreases, while the proportion of independent contractors and other business operators increase however, being an employee was the most likely form of employment for employed persons for all age ranges. For example:
  • 97% of employed persons aged 15-24 years were employees, 3% were independent contractors and 1% were other business operators;
  • 78% of employed persons aged 35-54 years were employees, 10% were independent contractors and 11% were other business operators; and
  • 51% of employed persons aged 65 years and over were employees, 19% were independent contractors and 30% were other business operators.


PERSONS WHO FOUND THEIR JOB THROUGH A LABOUR HIRE FIRM/EMPLOYMENT AGENCY
Diagram: PERSONS WHO FOUND THEIR JOB THROUGH A LABOUR HIRE FIRM/EMPLOYMENT AGENCY

In November 2011, there were 605,400 persons (5% of all employed persons) who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency of which 56% were males.

Of those persons who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency, most (60%) were in the 25-44 year age group.

For males who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency, the Manufacturing (19%) and Professional, scientific and technical services (9%) were the industry Divisions with the greatest proportion. For females, the most common industry Divisions were the Health care and social assistance (15%) and Financial and insurance services (11%).

The most common occupation groups for males who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency were Machinery operators and drivers and Professionals (both 22%). For females, the most common occupations group were Clerical and administrative workers (39%) and Professionals (23%).

The main reason for using a labour hire firm/employment agency for finding work was 'Ease of obtaining work' reported by 53% of persons who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency.

There were 141,700 persons (23% of those who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency) who were paid by a labour hire firm/employment agency (labour hire workers). Of these persons, the Administrative and support services (20%) and Manufacturing (13%) were the industry Divisions with the greatest proportion.

Clerical and administrative workers (21%) and Machinery operators and drivers (19%) were the most common occupation groups.

Of those who were paid by a labour hire firm/employment agency, there were 115,500 persons (82%) who usually had continuous/ongoing work from a labour hire firm/employment agency.

In November 2011, other characteristics of persons who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency include:
  • 35% usually had continuous ongoing work from their labour hire firm/employment agency;
  • 40% were still registered with the same labour hire firm/employment agency that found their job;
  • 36% had been with their current employer/business for less than 1 year and a further 46% had been with their current employer/business for 1-5 years;
  • 43% had one work assignment from their labour hire firm/employment agency in the last 12 months while 43% had no work assignments in the last 12 months; and
  • 43% of persons who found their job through a labour hire firm/ employment agency worked 40 hours in their main job during the reference week (52% of males and 31% of females).


END NOTE

1. See paragraph 19 of the Explanatory Notes for more information.


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