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Additivity for contributions to growth exists for the years where the statistical discrepancy is zero, effectively 1995-96 onwards, by using GDP expressed in the prices of the previous year. For the period 1986-87 to 1994-95, where the statistical discrepancy is not zero, the result is close to additive but not exact because the statistical discrepancy cannot be expressed in prices of the previous year. Additionally, quarterly contribution to growth estimates will not add to GDP growth due to the existence of a statistical discrepancy between the three quarterly measures of GDP.
Cultivated Biological Resources
Includes such assets as orchard growth and livestock. The definition of orchard growth is any plant that can produce a marketable quantity of fruit for more than one year in which the grower intends to obtain a future benefit from the sale of the fruits borne. It can include trees, vines, bushes and shrubs. The costs to be capitalised as part of the value of fruit and nut bearing plants are the establishment costs involved in planting the new nursery plant and then maintenance costs associated with making the plant grow. Livestock assets are classified as either fixed assets or inventories. Those livestock which are used in production of other products (e.g. breeding stock, animals for entertainment, sheep for wool and dairy cattle) are fixed assets. Inventories cover all other livestock types and includes those animals raised for meat or other one-off products (e.g. leather).
Estimates are valued at the prices of the period to which the observation relates. For example, estimates for 2007-08 are valued using 2007-08 prices. This contrasts to chain volume measures where the prices used in valuation refer to the prices of a previous period.
See Imports to domestic sales ratio.
Gross agricultural product at market prices. It is equivalent to gross value added of agriculture at basic prices plus taxes less subsidies on products.
Gross disposable income - households
Gross household income less income tax payable, other current taxes on income, wealth etc., interest on dwellings, consumer debt interest, interest payable by unincorporated enterprises, rent on natural assets, net non-life insurance premiums, social contribution for workers' compensation and other current transfers payable by households.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
Is the total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus gross domestic product, as here defined, is 'at market prices'. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services. Farm GDP is that part of gross domestic product which arises from production in agriculture. It is equivalent to the value added of ANZSIC 06 subdivision 01 'Agriculture' plus taxes less subsidies on products primary to this subdivision. Non-farm GDP arises from production in all other industries.
GDP per capita
The ratio of the chain volume estimate of GDP to an estimate of the resident Australian population. Population estimates use data published in the quarterly publication Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0) and ABS projections.
Gross domestic product per hour worked
The ratio of the chain volume estimate of GDP to an estimate of hours worked. Hours worked estimates are derived as the product of employment and average hours worked.
Movements in chain volume estimates of GDP per hour worked are commonly interpreted as changes in labour productivity. However, it should be noted that these measures reflect not only the contribution of labour to changes in production per hour worked, but also the contribution of capital and other factors (such as managerial efficiency, economies of scale, etc.).
Gross fixed capital formation - general government
Expenditure on new fixed assets plus net expenditure on second-hand fixed assets whether for additions or replacements including defence weapons platforms that have an anticipated ongoing use (greater than one year). Expenditure on new roadworks (or upgrading existing roads) is included but expenditure on road repair and maintenance is classified as government final consumption expenditure.
Gross fixed capital formation - private
Expenditure on fixed assets broken down into dwellings, non-dwelling construction, machinery and equipment, cultivated biological assets, intellectual property products and ownership transfer costs. The machinery and equipment category includes plant, machinery, equipment, vehicles, etc. Expenditure on repair and maintenance of fixed assets is excluded, being chargeable to the production account. Additions to fixed assets are regarded as capital formation. Also included is compensation of employees and other costs paid by private enterprise in connection with own-account capital formation. Expenditure on dwellings, non-dwelling construction, and machinery and equipment is measured as expenditure on new and second-hand assets, less sales of existing assets. Cultivated biological assets includes livestock and orchard growth. Along with Computer software, Mineral and petroleum exploration and Artistic originals, Research and development is now included in the intellectual property products asset type. Ownership transfer costs comprise of stamp duty, real estate agents' fees and sales commissions, conveyancing fees and miscellaneous government charges.
Gross fixed capital formation - public corporations
Expenditure on new fixed assets plus net expenditure on second-hand fixed assets and including both additions and replacements. Also included is compensation of employees and other costs paid by public corporations in connection with capital works undertaken on own account.
Gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises
The surplus or deficit accruing from production by unincorporated enterprises. It includes elements of both compensation of employees (returns on labour inputs) and operating surplus (returns on capital inputs).
Gross national income (GNI)
The aggregate value of gross primary incomes for all institutional sectors, including net primary income receivable from non-residents. GNI was formerly called gross national product (GNP).
Gross operating surplus
The operating surplus accruing to all enterprises, except unincorporated enterprises, from their operations in Australia. It is the excess of gross output over the sum of intermediate consumption, compensation of employees, and taxes less subsidies on production and imports. It is calculated before deduction of consumption of fixed capital, dividends, interest, royalties and land rent, and direct taxes payable, but after deducting the inventory valuation adjustment. Gross operating surplus is also calculated for general government and it equals general government's consumption of fixed capital.
Gross value added
The value of output at basic prices minus the value of intermediate consumption at purchasers' prices. The term is used to describe gross product by industry and by sector. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in the incidence of commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries.
The hours worked by all labour engaged in the production of goods and services, including hours worked by civilian wage and salary earners, employers, self-employed persons, persons working one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm, and members of the Australian defence forces.
Household saving ratio
The ratio of household net saving to household net disposable income. Household net saving is calculated as household net disposable income less household final consumption expenditure. Household net disposable income is calculated as household gross disposable income less household consumption of fixed capital.
Implicit price deflator
Obtained by dividing a current price value by its real counterpart (the chain volume measure). When calculated from the major national accounting aggregates, such as gross domestic product, implicit price deflators relate to a broader range of goods and services in the economy than that represented by any of the individual price indexes that are published by the ABS. Whereas the chain price indexes are chain Laspeyres indexes, the annual implicit price deflators are chain Paasche price indexes, i.e. each year-to-year movement is calculated using the current price value shares of the second of the two years to weight together the elemental price indexes.
Movements in implicit price deflators can be greatly affected by changes in the physical composition of the aggregates and their components. For this reason, quarterly implicit price deflators derived from seasonally adjusted or trend data are preferred to those derived using original data.
Imports to domestic sales ratio
The numerator - imports - refers to imports of merchandise goods. The denominator - domestic sales - is defined as:
This ratio is calculated using current price estimates.
Intellectual property products
Includes such assets as computer software, research and development, entertainment, literary or artistic originals, and mineral exploration intended to be used for more than a year.
See Gross domestic product per hour worked.
With the introduction of ANZSIC06, the definition of those industries that constitute the 'market' sector' has also changed. It is now defined to include all industries except for Public administration and safety (O); Education and training (P); and Health care and social assistance (Q). The chain volume measure of the production of a group of industries referred to as the market sector is defined to be the chain volume estimate of industry gross value added of all industries less Divisions O, P and Q, less Ownership of dwellings, plus taxes less subsidies on products attributable to the market sector industries.
Calculated as the sum of the net saving of each of the resident sectors - households (includes unincorporated enterprises and private non-profit institutions serving households), non-financial corporations, financial corporations and general government. Also referred to as net saving.
National saving ratio
The ratio of national net saving to national net disposable income. National net saving is calculated as national net disposable income less final consumption expenditure. National net disposable income is calculated as national gross disposable income less consumption of fixed capital.
Net domestic product
Calculated as GDP less consumption of fixed capital.
Net lending to non-residents
The excess of net acquisition of financial assets in the rest of the world by resident institutional units over their net incurrence of liabilities in the rest of the world.
Gross domestic product less farm GDP.
Private business investment
Second hand asset sales by the public sector to private corporations are included in private business investment in the components non-dwelling construction and machinery and equipment. As the public sector also sells secondhand assets to the household sector and to the external sector, not all secondhand asset sales by the public sector will be included in private business investment.
Private non-farm inventories to total sales ratio
The denominator - total sales - is defined as:
This ratio is calculated using current price estimates.
The amount paid by the purchaser, excluding any deductible tax, in order to take delivery of a unit of a good or service at the time and place required by the purchaser. The purchaser’s price of a good includes any transport charges paid separately by the purchaser to take delivery at the required time and place.
Real gross national income
Calculated by adjusting real gross domestic income for the real impact of primary income flows (property income and labour income) to and from overseas.
Real gross domestic income
In the derivation of the aggregate all of the adjustments are made using the chain volume aggregation method used to derive all of the ABS chain volume estimates.
Real net national disposable income
Real incomes payable and receivable are calculated by dividing the nominal income flows by the implicit price deflator for gross national expenditure. In the derivation of the aggregate all of the adjustments are made using the chain volume aggregation method used to derive all of the ABS chain volume estimates.
Statistical discrepancy (I), (E) and (P)
Calculated as the differences between aggregate incomes, expenditures, or industry products respectively and the single measure of GDP. For years in which a balanced supply and use table is available to benchmark the national accounts, the same measure of GDP is obtained.
Subsidies on products
Subsidies payable per unit of a good or service. The subsidy may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service, or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit. A subsidy may also be calculated as the difference between a specified target price and the market price actually paid by a purchaser. A subsidy on a product usually becomes payable when the product is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a product is exported, leased, transferred, delivered or used for own consumption or own capital formation.
Taxes on products
Taxes payable per unit of some good or service. The tax may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service (quantity being measured either in terms of discrete units or continuous physical variables such as volume, weight, strength, distance, time, etc.), or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit or value of the goods or services transacted. A tax on a product usually becomes payable when the product is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a good is exported, leased, transferred, delivered, or used for own consumption or own capital formation.
Terms of trade
Calculated by dividing the export implicit price deflator by the import implicit price deflator and multiplying by 100.
See Private non-farm inventories to total sales ratio.
Wages and salaries
Consist of amounts payable in cash including the value of any social contributions, income taxes, fringe benefits tax, etc., payable by the employee even if they are actually withheld by the employer for administrative convenience or other reasons and paid directly to social insurance schemes, tax authorities, etc., on behalf of the employee. Wages and salaries may be paid as remuneration in kind instead of, or in addition to, remuneration in cash. Separation, termination and redundancy payments are also included in wages and salaries. Wages and salaries are also measured as far as possible on an accrual rather than a strict cash basis. See also Employers’ social contributions; Compensation of employees.
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