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3412.0 - Migration, Australia, 2006-07 Quality Declaration 
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 26/03/2008   
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TRAVELLER CHARACTERISTICS OF RECENT NET OVERSEAS MIGRATION



INTRODUCTION

Variations in the demographic characteristics of travellers that arrive in or depart from Australia has direct impacts on a broad range of social, cultural, business and policy decisions and activities. In 2006-07, net overseas migration (NOM) added 177,600 people to Australia's population being the highest ever recorded. This chapter explores some demographic characteristics of the travellers that contributed to NOM in 2006-07 such as age, sex, country of birth and distribution by state and territory.




AGE AND SEX

In 2006-07, travellers contributing to NOM had a younger age structure than that of Australia's total population as seen in Figure 4.1.

4.1 AUSTRALIAN AND NET OVERSEAS MIGRATION POPULATION STRUCTURES, Age and sex - 2006-07
Diagram 4.1 AUSTRALIAN AND NET OVERSEAS MIGRATION POPULATION STRUCTURES, Age and Sex - 2006–07



The age group to contribute the most to Australia's NOM in 2006-07 were travellers aged 15-34 years, accounting for 59%. In comparison, 28% of Australia's total population were aged 15-34 years. Persons aged 0-14 years comprised 21% of NOM compared to 19% of Australia's population. In contrast, those aged 65 and older comprised only 1% of NOM but more than 13% of Australia's population.


The largest proportion of male and female travellers contributing to NOM in 2006-07 were those aged 20-24 years (each comprising 9% of NOM). This was followed closely by 25-29 year olds, with both males and females contributing 7% to NOM. In contrast both males and females aged 45 years and over contributed the least to NOM.




STATE AND TERRITORY

In 2006-07, all states and territories recorded population growth from NOM, although at varying levels. The most populated eastern states received the highest proportion of NOM: New South Wales (31%); Victoria (27%) and Queensland (19%). Followed by Western Australia with 14% and South Australia with 7%. The Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania and the Northern Territory each received less than 1% of Australia's NOM.

4.2 Net Overseas Migration, Selected Characteristics: State and Territory - 2006-07(a)

Net Overseas Migration(b)
NOM arrivals
NOM departures
Median age
Sex ratio(c)
Median age
Sex ratio(c)
State or territory
no.
%
years
ratio
years
ratio

New South Wales
54 890
30.9
27.0
100.0
29.4
100.7
Victoria
47 150
26.5
25.9
105.3
28.5
102.5
Queensland
33 540
18.9
27.3
99.6
29.0
97.9
South Australia
13 150
7.4
26.1
101.8
28.6
101.1
Western Australia
25 520
14.4
28.0
107.5
29.1
102.5
Tasmania
1 250
0.7
27.0
100.7
28.9
98.1
Northern Territory
1 320
0.7
29.7
124.0
30.3
133.1
Australian Capital Territory
800
0.4
27.5
104.2
29.8
102.2
Australia(d)
177 620
100.0
26.9
102.6
29.0
101.2

(a) Estimates for 2006-07 are preliminary - see paragraphs 15-17 of the Explanatory Notes.
(b) Estimates have been rounded to the nearest 10, sums of components may not add to totals.
(c) Males per 100 females.
(d) Includes other territories.



Median age

For those contributing to NOM in 2006-07, the median ages varied between arrivals, departures and between each of the states and territories. The highest median ages for NOM arrivals were recorded from travellers migrating to the Northern Territory (29.7 years), Western Australia (28.0 years) and the Australian Capital Territory (27.5 years). The lowest median age for NOM arrivals was recorded for migrants to Victoria (25.9 years) and South Australia (26.1 years). The median age for all NOM arrivals was 26.9 years.


In comparison, the highest median ages for NOM departures were for travellers from the Northern Territory (30.3 years), the Australian Capital Territory (29.8 years) and New South Wales (29.4 years). The lowest median ages for NOM departures were from Victoria (28.5 years), South Australia (28.6 years) and Tasmania (28.9 years). This compares to an overall median age for NOM departures of 29.0 years, 2.1 years higher than arrivals.



Sex ratio

The sex ratios of travellers who contributed to NOM in 2006-07 also varied between arrivals, departures and between the states and territories. The highest sex ratios recorded for NOM arrivals were from travellers migrating to the Northern Territory (124.0 males per 100 females), Western Australia (107.5) and Victoria (105.3). The lowest sex ratios were recorded for NOM arrivals to Queensland (99.6), New South Wales (100.0) and Tasmania (100.7). The sex ratio for all NOM arrivals to Australia in 2006-07 was 102.6 males per 100 females.


The highest sex ratios recorded for NOM departures were from the Northern Territory (133.1 males per 100 females), Western Australia and Victoria (both at 102.5). In contrast, the lowest sex ratios for NOM departures were recorded in Queensland (97.9) and Tasmania (98.1). The sex ratio for all departures from Australia in 2006-07 was 101.2 males per 100 females.



Overseas flows

The combined flows of overseas migration (arrivals and departures) shows there were 597,200 people crossing Australia's border who impacted on NOM in 2006-07. Of these, there were 387,400 arrivals contributing to NOM (NOM arrivals) and 209,800 departures contributing to NOM (NOM departures). Much of the movement of travellers across Australia's boarder occurred within the more populated states. New South Wales had the largest number of NOM arrivals (133,300 persons) and the largest number of NOM departures (78,400 persons). Conversely, Tasmania had both the smallest number of arrivals (3,500 persons) and the smallest number of departures (2,200 persons).

4.3 Overseas migration flows, State and territory - 2006-07(a)
Graph: 4.3 Overseas migration flows, State and territory—2006–07(a)




Overseas flows as proportion of population

The impact of the flows of overseas migration for each state and territory varies. To assess this impact each flow as a proportion of a state's or territory's population has been examined as seen in Figure 4.4. Therefore in 2006-07, the Northern Territory experienced the greatest impact from both NOM arrivals and NOM departures, with 2.4% and 1.8% respectively. Likewise, the Australian Capital Territory showed a 1.9% increase to its population through NOM arrivals but a 1.6% loss from NOM departures.

4.4 Overseas migration flows, Proportion of population(a) - Year ended 30 June 2007(b)
Graph: 4.4 Overseas migration flows, Proportion of population(a)—Year ended 30 June 2007(b)




Population turnover

In 2006-07, the population turnover due to overseas migration (gross overseas moves in relation to size of the population) was the highest in the Northern Territory at 4.2% (i.e. NOM arrivals and NOM departures combined). This was followed by the Australian Capital Territory (3.5%), Western Australia (3.4%) and New South Wales (3.1%). Of the remaining states and territories, Queensland's population turnover from overseas migration was 2.8%, Victoria 2.7%, and South Australia 2.0%. Tasmania had the lowest population turnover due to NOM in 2006-07 at 1.2%.




TOP TEN COUNTRIES OF BIRTH

Travellers that have been included in the calculation of NOM either contribute positively or negatively to the net figure. These travellers can then be grouped by specific demographic characteristics such as by country of birth. For example, if the NOM arrivals for that group are greater than the NOM departures, then the net result is a positive contribution to NOM, as seen for China-born migrants in Figure 4.5. Alternatively, if the NOM departures are greater than the NOM arrivals then the net will be negative, as seen for Australia-born travellers in Figure 4.5.

4.5 NET OVERSEAS MIGRATION, Top 10 Countries of Birth: Australia - 2006-07(a)
Graph: 4.5 NET OVERSEAS MIGRATION, Top 10 Countries of Birth: Australia—2006–07(a)



Figure 4.5 shows the top ten countries of birth that have contributed to NOM in 2006-07. It shows whether these countries have contributed positively or negatively to NOM and therefore to the estimated resident population (ERP) of Australia.


During 2006-07, travellers that contributed to NOM were born in over 200 countries. Travellers who were born in China contributed the most to NOM in 2006-07, with a net positive contribution to ERP of 23,000 persons. This was followed closely by migrants born in the United Kingdom (22,800), New Zealand (21,400), and India (17,400).


Traditionally, NOM nationally is positive, with more NOM arrivals than NOM departures, as was experienced in 2006-07. As a result the majority of migrants born overseas contribute positively to NOM and therefore to Australia's population. Alternatively, apart from Australia-born travellers, those countries with more NOM departures than NOM arrivals (i.e. contributing negatively to NOM) were negligible. Australia-born travellers were the largest negative contributors to NOM with 22,700 people subtracted from Australia's population.

4.6 Net overseas migration, Selected characteristics - Top 10 countries of birth: Australia - 2006 - 07(a)

Net Overseas Migration(b)
NOM Arrivals
NOM Departures
Overseas arrivals(b)
Median Age
Sex Ratio(c)
Overseas departures(b)
Median Age
Sex Ratio(c)
Country of birth
no.
no.
years
ratio
no.
years
ratio

China(d)
23 000
34 650
24.1
85.9
11 650
27.7
89.2
United Kingdom
22 840
42 160
31.4
114.6
19 320
35.0
115.1
Australia(e)
-22 700
49 120
27.8
101.6
71 810
27.2
100.5
New Zealand
21 420
37 700
26.3
104.1
16 280
32.0
103.6
India
17 410
24 630
25.5
171.3
7 230
28.4
193.8
Japan
9 100
15 160
25.6
68.2
6 060
29.2
59.5
Korea(f)
8 830
15 280
25.2
90.5
6 450
27.0
87.2
South Africa
6 700
9 520
29.6
104.4
2 810
32.6
98.7
Malaysia
6 030
11 110
24.2
88.2
5 080
28.6
94.1
United States of America
5 230
10 270
29.9
115.1
5 040
29.3
104.7

(a) Estimates for 2006-07 are preliminary - see paragraphs 15-17 of the Explanatory Notes.
(b) Estimates rounded to nearest 10, sum of components may not add to totals.
(c) Males per 100 females.
(d) Excludes SARs and Taiwan.
(e) Australia-born had more departures than arrivals. It is the largest negative contributor to NOM.
(f) Includes Republic of Korea and Democratic People's Republic of Korea.


In 2006-07, the sex ratios and median ages of recent arrivals and departures contributing to NOM varied between countries of birth as seen in Figure 4.6.



Sex ratios

There were however, similar trends between some country groups for both arrivals and departures. For example, migrants born in East-Asian countries such as Malaysia, China, Korea and Japan had the lowest sex ratios of males per 100 females. Whereas those born in mainly English speaking countries such as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, South Africa, New Zealand as well as India had the highest sex ratios.


Of the top 10 countries of birth in 2006-07, NOM arrivals born in Japan had the lowest sex ratio, with only 68.2 males per 100 females. Followed by travellers born in China (85.9) and Malaysia (88.2). In contrast, of the same countries selected travellers arrivals born in India had the highest sex ratio with 171.3 males per 100 females. Migrant arrivals born in the United States of America and the United Kingdom had the next highest sex ratios at 115.1 and 114.6 respectively.


Like NOM arrivals, the lowest sex ratio for NOM departures of the countries selected was recorded for travellers born in Japan with 59.5 males per 100 females. This was followed by departures born in Korea and China with 87.2 and 89.2 males per 100 females respectively. In contrast, the highest sex ratios for NOM departures were recorded from travellers born in India (193.8) and the United Kingdom (115.1).


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