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4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, July 2013  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 25/07/2013   
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Same-Sex Couples

This article features in Episode 14 of the Australian Social Trends Podcast series.
Listen to the episode, or subscribe to the series, here AST Podcast via RSS, or via iTunes.


Related terms:
same sex couples, gay couples, same sex parents, same sex families, gay families, same sex relationship, same sex marriage, gay marriages, lesbian couples, gay relationships, lesbian relationship, Census data



INTRODUCTION

There has been increasing interest in same-sex couples within Australian society in recent years. Legislative reforms at the State/Territory and Commonwealth level have removed the majority of legal distinctions between same-sex couples and opposite-sex couples, recognising their relationships in matters such as superannuation, taxation, social security, inheritance, and support for veterans. In some states and territories, relationship registers have been created, or arrangements for the recognition of domestic partnerships have been introduced. (Endnote 1) However, there is still no Australian legislation to allow same-sex marriage or legal recognition of same-sex marriages performed overseas.

This article provides information about the characteristics of Australians who identify themselves in the Census of Population and Housing as living in the same household in a same-sex couple relationship. For the 2011 Census, a new classification was developed to retain the relationship of same-sex couples as they reported it on their Census form - whether as husband/wife or de facto partner. Information regarding the new relationship classification can be found within the Fact Sheet Counts of same-sex couples in the 2011 Census, and further information on same-sex couples can also be found in Reflecting a Nation: Same-sex Couple Families (cat. no. 2071.0).

HOW MANY SAME-SEX COUPLES ARE THERE?

According to the 2011 Census, there were around 33,700 same-sex couples in Australia, with 17,600 male same-sex couples and 16,100 female same-sex couples. Same-sex couples represented about 1% of all couples in Australia. This pattern of more male than female same-sex couples has been consistent since 1996, when data first became available, although the degree of difference has decreased in each Census. Although the overwhelming majority of same-sex couples described themselves on the Census form as de facto partners, there were 1,300 same-sex couples where one person was described as the husband or wife of the other.

NUMBER OF SAME-SEX COUPLES - 1996-2011
Column graph of Number of Same-Sex couples, male same-sex couples or female same-sex couples, 1996 to 2011
Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

The number of same-sex couples in Australia counted in the Census has risen significantly in recent years, with a 32% increase in the five years since 2006. In the 15 years between 1996 and 2011, the number of same-sex couples more than tripled. The increasing number of people identified as being in a same-sex relationship may reflect growing social acceptance. There may also be increased awareness that data about same-sex couples is made available from the Census, giving more reason for same-sex couples to be open about the nature of their relationship and willing to supply this information.

According to the ABS National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, homosexual people are less likely than heterosexual people to be living with a partner: in 2007, 28% of people who reported they were homosexual were living in a couple relationship compared with 58% of people who reported they were heterosexual.

DOES AGE MATTER?

People in same-sex couples tended to be younger than people in opposite-sex couples. The median age of people in a same-sex couple was 40 years compared with 48 years for people in opposite-sex couples.

More than three-quarters of people in same-sex couples (76%) were aged less than 50, compared with 54% of people in opposite-sex couples. Only 3% of people in same-sex couples were aged 65 or more, compared with 17% of people in opposite-sex couples.

PERCENTAGE OF PEOPLE IN COUPLE RELATIONSHIPS BY AGE - 2011
Line graph of Percentage of people in couple relationships by age, 2011
Age range (years)

Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

While 1.6% of people aged 15-24 years in couple relationships were in a same-sex relationship, only 0.1% of people aged 65 years or more in couple relationships were in a same-sex relationship. While this pattern may reflect increasing social acceptance in recent decades, or a growing number of same-sex relationships amongst younger people, it could also reflect differences in reporting behaviour, with older same-sex couples possibly more reluctant to report on the Census Form they are in a same-sex relationship. (Endnote 2)

As in previous Censuses, the age distribution of male and female same-sex partners in 2011 was similar, however female same-sex couples had a slightly younger age profile.

Age differences between partners

Same-sex relationships tended to have a greater age gap between partners than opposite-sex relationships. For female same-sex couples there was an average age gap between partners of 4.8 years, and for male couples there was an average gap of 6.5 years. In around a quarter (25%) of male same-sex relationships there was an age difference of 10 years or more between the partners, compared with only 8% for opposite-sex couples.

In opposite-sex relationships, the average age gap between the older and the younger partner was 3.7 years. In the majority of cases (70%), the older partner was male and the younger partner was female.

AGE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARTNERS IN COUPLES - 2011
Column graph of Age difference between partners in couples, 2011
Age difference between partners

Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

HOW MANY SAME-SEX COUPLES HAVE CHILDREN?

The 2011 Census counted 6,300 children living in same-sex couple families, up from 3,400 in 2001. Children in same-sex couple families make up only one in a thousand of all children in couple families (0.1%). The vast majority of these children (89%) were in female same-sex couple families. Children in same-sex couples may have been born into a previous opposite-sex relationship of one of the partners, or conceived with the help of reproductive technology, adopted, or fostered in a same-sex relationship. (Endnote 3)

Not only are opposite-sex couples much more likely than same-sex couples to have children living in the family (54% compared with 12%), those who had children also tended to have more children than same-sex couples. Nearly two-thirds (64%) of opposite-sex couples with children had two or more children living in the family, compared with 47% of same-sex couples with children.

PERCENTAGE OF COUPLES WITH CHILDREN(a) LIVING IN THE FAMILY - 2011
Column graph of Percentage of couples with children living in the family, 2011
(a) Includes all dependent and non-dependent children in the family.
Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

ARE SAME SEX COUPLES LESS RELIGIOUS?

Same-sex couples were more likely to report they had no religion than opposite-sex couples. Almost half of the people in same-sex couples reported that they had no religion (48%), more than twice the proportion of people in opposite-sex couples (21%).

However, around two in every five people in same-sex relationships (40%) reported they were Christian. The most commonly reported religions by people in same-sex relationships were Catholic (18%), Anglican (13%) and Buddhist (4%).

While they had relatively low numbers, people in same-sex couples (particularly women) reported higher than average rates of belonging to Spiritualism and Nature Religions (such as Paganism and Wiccan, both 2%).

For more information on the religion of people in same-sex couples, see Reflecting a Nation: Same-sex couple families (cat. no. 2071.0).

HIGHER LEVELS OF EDUCATION

People in same-sex couples tend to be more highly educated than people in opposite-sex couples. In 2011, 42% of people in same-sex couples had a Bachelor degree or higher qualification, compared with 23% of people in opposite-sex couples. In every five year age group, people in same-sex couples were more likely than those in opposite-sex couples to report having a Bachelor degree or above.

This trend was also evident for higher degrees. In 2011, 2.3% of people in same-sex couples had a Doctoral degree, compared with 0.9% of people in opposite-sex couples.

PERCENTAGE OF PEOPLE WITH A BACHELOR DEGREE OR ABOVE, BY AGE - 2011
Line graph of Percentage of people with bachelor degree by age for people in same-sex couples and people in opposite-sex couples, 2011
Age group (years)

Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

WORK

Same-sex couples also tend to have high labour force participation rates and employment to population ratios. In 2011, 89% of people in same-sex couples were participating in the labour force (either employed or unemployed), compared with 69% of opposite-sex couples. The percentage of people in same-sex couples employed as a proportion of the same-sex couple population was 86%, significantly higher than opposite-sex couples (67%).

In line with their higher levels of education, people in same-sex couples were more likely than those in opposite-sex couples to work in highly skilled occupations such as managers or professionals. Over half of the people in same-sex couples that were employed worked as managers or professionals (53%), compared with 40% of people in opposite-sex couples.

PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYED PEOPLE WHO WERE MANAGERS OR PROFESSIONALS BY AGE - 2011
Line graph of Percentage of employed people who were managers or professionals by age for people in same-sex couples and people in opposite-sex couples, 2011
Age group (years)

Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

In 2011, the most common occupation for men in same-sex couples was retail manager, with the next most common occupations being registered nurses, sales assistants, and advertising, public relations and sales managers. Other occupations in the top ten for men in same-sex couples included hairdressers, cafe/restaurant managers, and solicitors, while trades were well represented for men in opposite-sex couples.

For women in same-sex couples, the most common occupation was registered nurse, with the next most common occupations being retail managers, sales assistants and secondary school teachers. Police, welfare workers and university lecturers/tutors figured in the top ten occupations of women in same-sex couples but not opposite-sex couples, with teaching and clerical occupations being common across both groups.

MOST COMMON OCCUPATIONS, MALES, 2011
Men in same-sex couples
%
Men in opposite-sex couples
%


Retail managers
3.7
Truck drivers
2.9
Sales assistants (General)
2.9
Retail managers
2.3
Advertising, public relations and sales managers
2.9
Electricians
1.9
Registered nurses
1.9
Metal fitters and machinists
1.6
Contract, program and project administrators
1.6
Carpenters and joiners
1.6
Hairdressers
1.5
Construction managers
1.6
General clerks
1.5
Accountants
1.5
Cafe and restaurant managers
1.5
Advertising, public relations and sales managers
1.5
Accountants
1.5
Motor mechanics
1.5
Solicitors
1.3
Sales representatives
1.4


MOST COMMON OCCUPATIONS, FEMALES, 2011
Women in same-sex couples
%
Women in opposite-sex couples
%


Registered nurses
4.3
General clerks
5.1
Retail managers
2.4
Sales assistants (General)
4.9
Sales assistants (General)
2.3
Registered nurses
4.6
Secondary school teachers
2.2
Primary school teachers
3.1
Police
2.2
Receptionists
2.8
Welfare support workers
2.0
Office managers
2.6
General clerks
1.8
Bookkeepers
2.3
Contract, program and project administrators
1.8
Retail managers
2.3
Primary school teachers
1.7
Accounting clerks
2.2
University lecturers and tutors
1.5
Child carers
2.1


INCOME

Consistent with their higher levels of education, and greater likelihood of being employed in highly skilled occupations, people in same-sex couple relationships were more likely than those in opposite-sex couple relationships to have higher personal incomes.

In 2011, 18% of men in same-sex couples earned $2,000 or more a week, compared with 14% of men in opposite-sex couples. For women, the difference was even greater: women in same-sex couples were nearly three times as likely to be earning $2,000 or more a week as women in opposite-sex couples (11% compared with 4%).

PERCENTAGE OF MEN WITH INCOME OF $2,000 OR MORE PER WEEK, BY AGE - 2011
Line graph of Percentage of men with incoem of $2,000 or more per week by age for men in same-sex couples and men in opposite-sex couples, 2011
Age group (years)

Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN WITH INCOME OF $2,000 OR MORE PER WEEK, BY AGE - 2011
Line graph of Percentage of women with income of $2,000 or more per week by age for women in same-sex couples and women in opposite-sex couples, 2011
Age group (years)

Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

The proportion of women in same-sex relationships that earned $2,000 or more a week was much greater than the proportion of women in opposite-sex relationships during the peak income earning years from 30 to 64. This in part reflects the greater likelihood of women in opposite-sex relationships to leave the workforce (either temporarily or permanently) to have children.

Household income

In 40% of male same-sex couples and 35% of female same-sex couples both partners earned $1,000 or more a week; more than twice the proportion of opposite-sex couples (17%). Consequently, same-sex couples were more likely to fall into the higher household income brackets. Around two thirds (67%) of male same-sex couples had a combined household income of $2,000 or more per week, along with 58% of female same-sex couples and 42% of opposite-sex couples.

SHARING THE HOUSEWORK

In same-sex couples, unpaid domestic work such as housework, food preparation, laundry, gardening, and home maintenance and repairs was more evenly shared between the partners. In female same-sex couples, 59% of partners did about the same amount of work, and for male same-sex couples this figure was 57%.

In opposite-sex couples, women tend to do more unpaid work than men. In 2011, women did more unpaid domestic work than men in 56% of opposite-sex couples, compared with 6% of couples where men did more domestic work than women, and 38% where partners did the same amount of domestic work.

PERCENTAGE OF COUPLES WHERE BOTH PARTNERS DID ABOUT THE SAME AMOUNT OF UNPAID DOMESTIC WORK (a) - 2011
Column graph of Percentage of couples where both partners did the same amount of unpaid domestic work for male same-sex couples and female same-sex couples and opposite sex couples, 2011
(a) Couples in which both partners reported amount of unpaid work within the same range on the Census form.
Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

Overall, men in same-sex couples did more unpaid domestic work than men in opposite-sex couples, and women in same-sex couples did less unpaid work than women in opposite-sex relationships. However, women in same-sex relationships still tended to do more unpaid domestic work than men in same-sex relationships.

Men in same-sex relationships were slightly more likely to spend five or more hours doing unpaid domestic work in the week prior to the Census (54%) than men in opposite-sex relationships (49%). About one in five men in opposite-sex relationships did no unpaid domestic work at all, compared with about one in eight men in same-sex relationships.

Just under two thirds (65%) of women in same-sex relationships did five or more hours unpaid domestic work in the past week, compared with 80% of women in opposite-sex relationships. Interestingly, slightly more women in opposite-sex relationships did no unpaid domestic work at all - 11% compared with 8% of women in same-sex couples.

PERCENTAGE OF PEOPLE IN COUPLES WHO DID FIVE OR MORE HOURS OF UNPAID DOMESTIC WORK (a), BY SEX - 2011
Column graph of Percentage of people in couples who did five or more hours of unpaid domestiv work by sex, 2011
(a) In the week prior to the Census.
Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

WHERE DO SAME-SEX COUPLES LIVE?

Same-sex couples were more likely to live in large cities or towns than in rural and regional areas of Australia.

This pattern was true for both male and female same-sex couples, but was particularly apparent for male couples. In cities of 1 million or more people, male same-sex couples made up 0.5% of all couples, and in cities with a population between 100,000 and 1 million, they made up 0.3%. In rural areas and towns with a population of less than 10,000 people, they made up less than 0.2% of couples.

Female same-sex couples were also more likely to live in larger cities or towns, but the difference was not as pronounced as it was for male same-sex couples. Female same-sex couples made up about 0.4% of couples in cities of 1 million or more people, as well as close to 0.4% in cities larger than 100,000 people, 0.3% in cities and towns with a population between 10,000 and 100,000, and slightly over 0.2% in the rest of Australia.

PERCENTAGE OF ALL COUPLES THAT WERE SAME-SEX, BY POPULATION OF CITY OR TOWN - 2011
Column graph of Percentage of all couples that were same-sex, by population of city or town, 2011
Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

States and territories

Consistent with its predominant urban character and more highly educated population, the Australian Capital Territory had the highest rates of both male (0.5%) and female (0.6%) same-sex couples of any state or territory.

Relative to the general population, New South Wales had a higher than average proportion of same-sex couples, particularly male couples (0.5%). In 2011, while NSW had just under a third (32%) of Australia's population, it had 41% of Australia's male same-sex couples, and 34% of Australia's female same-sex couples.

The Northern Territory had particularly high rates of female same-sex couples (0.5%), but a below average proportion of male same-sex couples (0.3%).

PERCENTAGE OF ALL COUPLES THAT WERE SAME-SEX, BY STATE OR TERRITORY - 2011
Column graph of Percentage of all couples that were same-sex by state or territory, 2011
(a) includes Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Jervis Bay Territory.
Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

While there were more male same-sex couples than female same-sex couples overall, there were more female same-sex couples in all states other than New South Wales and Victoria (which have high rates of male same-sex couples in their capital cities). In Sydney, 0.7% of all couples were male same-sex, and in Melbourne the figure was 0.5%.

Which suburbs?

Both male and female same-sex couples tend to live in inner-city suburbs of the capital cities. In fact, the top ten suburbs for male and female same-sex couples were all in inner Sydney. While male same-sex couples make up less than 0.4% of all couples across Australia, they made up 10% to 18% of all couples in the ten suburbs with the highest proportions of people in male same-sex couples.

CAPITAL CITY SUBURBS(a) WITH THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGE OF SAME-SEX COUPLES(b) - 2011

Male same-sex couples
Female same-sex couples


% of couples% of couples


Darlinghurst, NSW17.9St Peters, NSW6.0
Potts Point, NSW17.8Newtown, NSW5.7
Surry Hills, NSW17.3Erskineville, NSW5.4
Elizabeth Bay, NSW16.3Enmore, NSW5.3
Redfern, NSW14.5Lewisham, NSW4.2
Erskineville, NSW11.0Alexandria, NSW3.6
Alexandria, NSW10.4Tempe, NSW3.5
Chippendale, NSW10.3Chippendale, NSW3.4
Darlington, NSW10.3Marrickville, NSW3.2
Rushcutters Bay, NSW10.1Stanmore, NSW3.0

(a) Suburbs with less than a total of 250 couples excluded.
(b) As a percentage of all couples.
Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

In 2011, the suburbs with the highest proportions of male same-sex couples were Darlinghurst, Potts Point and Surry Hills.

Many of the suburbs with the highest proportions of same-sex couples were in the inner east of Sydney, which has historically been the social centre of Australia's gay community, particularly focussed around the western end of Oxford Street near Taylor Square in Darlinghurst. (Endnote 4) In 2011, one in every ten men in Australia living in a same-sex relationship lived within two kilometres of Taylor Square.

MALE SAME-SEX COUPLES AS A PERCENTAGE OF ALL COUPLES, INNER SYDNEY - 2011
Picture of map of location of male same-sex couples as a percentage of all couples, inner sydney, 2011

The suburbs with the highest proportions of female same-sex couples tended to be in the inner west of Sydney, such as St Peters, Newtown, Erskineville, and Enmore. Female same-sex couples tended to be much more geographically dispersed and less concentrated than male same-sex couples. In St Peters (the suburb with the highest proportion of female same-sex couples), female same-sex couples made up 6% of all couples.

FEMALE SAME-SEX COUPLES AS A PERCENTAGE OF ALL COUPLES, INNER SYDNEY - 2011
Picture of map of location of female same-sex couples as a percentage of all couples, inner sydney, 2011

While smaller towns and cities tended to have lower proportions of same-sex couples, there were certain towns with relatively high rates, particularly of female same-sex couples. These included Daylesford-Hepburn Springs in Victoria (where female same-sex couples made up 4.5% of all couples), and Alice Springs in the Northern Territory (where female same-sex couples made up 1.2% of all couples).

Apartment living?

Consistent with being more likely to live in inner-city suburbs, same-sex couples, particularly male same-sex couples, were much less likely than other couples to live in detached houses, and more likely to live in flats, units, apartments, or row/terrace houses.

Around half of male same-sex couples (51%) lived in a unit or row/terrace house, compared with 31% of female same-sex couples and 15% of opposite-sex couples.

PERCENTAGE OF COUPLES LIVING IN A FLAT/UNIT/APARTMENT OR ROW/TERRACE HOUSE - 2011
Column graph of Percentage of couples living in a flat /unit/apartment or row/terrace house by male same-sex couple, female same-sex couple and oppoiste sex couple, 2011
Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

More mobile

People in same-sex couples tend to be more mobile than people in opposite-sex couples. In 2011, 63% of people in same-sex couples lived somewhere else five years ago compared with 40% of people in opposite-sex couples.

While young people, particularly those in couple relationships, were more likely to be living somewhere different to where they lived five years ago, people in same-sex couples were more likely than people in opposite-sex relationships to have lived elsewhere five years ago, regardless of their age group.

PERCENTAGE OF PEOPLE THAT LIVED ELSEWHERE FIVE YEARS AGO BY TYPE OF COUPLE - 2011
Line graph of Percentage of people that lived elsewhere five years ago by type of couple, people in same-sex couples or people in opposite sex couples, 2011
Age group (years)

Source: 2011 Census of Population and Housing

EXPLANATORY INFORMATION

DATA SOURCES AND DEFINITIONS

The data used in this article comes from ABS Census of Population and Housing which has the most detailed and reliable data on same-sex couples. Counts of same-sex couples are available starting from the 1996 Census and ABS 2007 Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, which collected data on sexual preference.

While information on same-sex relationships is collected in a number of ABS surveys, the relatively small sample size of these collections means the amount of analysis is limited, therefore this article mostly uses data from the last Census conducted in 2011.

Same-sex couple refers to two people of the same sex who report a de facto or married partnership in the relationship question, and who are usually resident in the same household.
Opposite-sex couple refers to two people who report a registered marriage or in a de facto opposite-sex relationship, and who are usually resident in the same household.

Under the Commonwealth Marriage Act (1961), legal marriage must be between a man and a woman; and same-sex marriages performed overseas are not recognised as legal marriages in Australia. For the 2011 Census, people that reported on the Census Form that they were in a same-sex marriage were coded as de facto couples, in line with the Marriage Act. However, for those same-sex couples that reported that they were married, a new classification was developed 'Relationship as reported' to retain the relationship of same-sex couples as they reported it on their Census Form, whether as husbands or wife or de facto partner. There were 1,300 same-sex couples where one person was described as the husband or wife of the other. The reasons why people in Australia might report that they are the husband or wife of someone of the same sex cannot be known from Census data but may include having been married in a jurisdiction other than Australia; having registered their relationship under state or territory law; having gone through a ceremony; simply regarding themselves as married; or considering that husband or wife is the term that best describes their relationship. See the Fact Sheet Counts of same-sex couples in the 2011 Census for more information.

References to suburbs or other areas are using the State Suburb Classification (SSC). This classification aligns closely to officially gazetted suburb and locality boundaries particularly in urban areas.

In the Census, unpaid domestic work refers to the amount of time spent last week doing unpaid domestic work for their household, including housework, food and drink preparation, cleaning, laundry, gardening, home maintenance and repairs, household shopping and management of finances. The data is collected in a number of categories: nil, less than 5 hours, 5 to 14 hours, 15 to 29 hours, and 30 hours or more. In this article, where both partners in a couple reported that the amount of work they did was in the same category, it is considered that both partners did about the same amount of unpaid domestic work.

The analysis of occupations in this article uses the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO). For the purposes of this article, occupations are classified as being male-dominated when 80% or more people working in that occupation were male, and female-dominated when 80% or more people working in that occupation were female. For more information about occupation classifications please see ANZSCO - Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, First Edition, Revision 1 (cat. no. 1220.0).

Unless otherwise stated, the data in this article refers to people aged 15 years and over.

For more detailed definitions please see Census Dictionary, 2011 (cat. no. 2901.0) and Reflecting a Nation: Same-sex Couple Families (cat. no. 2071.0).

ENDNOTES

1. Property (Relationships) Legislation Amendment Act 1999 (NSW); Miscellaneous Acts Amendment (Same Sex Relationships) Act 2008 (NSW); Statute Law Amendment (Relationships) Act 2001 (Vic.); Discrimination Law Amendment Act 2002 (Qld); Industrial Relations Act 1999 (Qld); Family Relationships Act 1975 (SA); Statutes Amendment (Domestic Partners) Act 2006 (SA); Acts Amendment (Lesbian and Gay Law Reform) Act 2002 (WA); Law Reform (Gender, Sexuality and De Facto Relationships) Act 2004 (NT); Domestic Relationships Act 1994 (ACT); Civil Partnerships Amendment Act 2009 (ACT); Same-Sex Relationships (Equal Treatment in Commonwealth Laws - General Law Reform Act 2008 (Cwlth); Same-Sex Relationships (Equal Treatment in Commonwealth Laws - Superannuation) Act 2008 (Cwlth); Same-Sex Relationships (Equal Treatment in Commonwealth Laws - General Law Reform) (Child Support) Regulations 2009 (Cwlth); Australian Government. Attorney-General's department 'Same-sex Reforms' <www.ag.gov.au> viewed 26 Aug 2011.

2. David de Vaus, Diversity and change in Australian families, Statistical Profiles, Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2004 <www.aifs.gov.au>.

3. Elizabeth Short, Damien W Riggs, Amaryll Perlesz, Rhonda Brown and Graeme Kane and The Australian Psychological Society Ltd 2007, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Parented Families; a literature review prepared for the Australian Psychological Society <www.psychology.org.au> viewed 11/11/211 p. 4; Jenni Millbank 2003, 'From Here to Maternity: A Review of the Research on Lesbian and Gay Families’, Australian Journal of Social Issues v.38 no 4 pp 549- 551; Ruth McNair, Deborah Dempsey, Sarah Wise and Amaryll Perlesz 2002, 'Lesbian Parenting: Issues, strengths and challenges' Family Matters No 63, Australian Institute of Family Studies <www.aifs.gov.au>.

4. B. Ruting, Is the Golden Mile tarnishing? Urban and social change on Oxford Street, Sydney, School of Geosciences, The University of Sydney, 2007


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