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1338.1 - NSW State and Regional Indicators, Dec 2010  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 31/01/2011  Final
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GLOSSARY

12/16 month rule


A method for measuring an overseas traveller's duration of stay or absence which takes an approach to measure usual residence that does not have to be continuous, as opposed to the continuous approach used under a 12/12 month rule. Under a 12/16 month rule, overseas travellers must have been resident in Australia for a total period of 12 months or more, during the 16 month follow-up period to be included in the estimated resident population.

The 12/16 month rule therefore takes account of those persons who may have left Australia briefly and returned, while still being resident for 12 months out of 16. Similarly, it takes account of Australians who live most of the time overseas but periodically return to Australia for short periods. Reference: Migration, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3412.0).

Accommodation for the retired or aged (not self-contained)

Accommodation for retired or aged people where the occupants are not regarded as being self-sufficient and do not provide their own meals. Reference: 2006 Census Dictionary (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Admitted patient


A patient who undergoes a hospital’s formal admission process to receive treatment and/or care. This treatment and/or care is provided over a period of time and can occur in hospital and/or in the person’s home (for hospital-in-the-home patients). Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Adult employees


Adult employees are those employees 21 years of age or over and those employees who, although under 21 years of age, are paid at the full adult rate for their occupation. Reference: Average Weekly Earnings, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6302.0).

Affective disorders


A mood disturbance. Includes mania, hypomania, bipolar affective disorder, depression and dysthymia. Reference: Mental Health and Wellbeing, Profile of Adults, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4326.0).

Age-specific death rate


The number of deaths (occurred or registered) during the calendar year at a specified age per 1,000 of the estimated resident population of the same age at 30 June. Pro rata adjustment is made in respect of deaths for which the age of the deceased is not given. Reference: Deaths, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3302.0).

Age-specific fertility rate


The number of live births (occurred or registered) during the calendar year, according to the age of mother, per 1,000 of the female resident population of the same age at 30 June. For calculating these rates, births to mothers under 15 years are included in the 15-19 years age group, and births to mothers aged 50 years and over are included in the 45-49 years age group. Pro rata adjustment is made for births for which the age of mother is not given. Reference: Births, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).

Anxiety disorders


Feelings of tension, distress or nervousness. Includes Agoraphobia, Social phobia, Panic disorder, Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Reference: Mental Health and Wellbeing, Profile of Adults, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4326.0).

Apparent retention rate


This is the number of school students in a designated level/year of education expressed as a percentage of their respective cohort group (which is either at the commencement of their secondary schooling or Year 10). In this publication, apparent retention rates are generally calculated for full-time school students who continued to Year 12 of secondary schooling. Reference: Schools, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4221.0).

Apprehended Violence Order (AVO)


Apprehended Violence Orders (AVOs) are orders that a court makes to protect people. AVOs protect people by ordering a number of things that the defendant must not do. Depending on the relationship between the applicant and defendant, AVOs can relate to either domestic violence or non-domestic related (personal) violence. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Apprentices and trainees


Persons undertaking new apprenticeships and traineeships are covered by formal agreements known as either Training Agreements or Contracts of Training. Under these agreements, the employer is obligated to provide training, help and supervision; and the trainee or apprentice is obligated to work as well as undertake the training. Reference: Australian Vocational Education and Training Management Information Statistical Standard - Standard for new apprenticeships 2005.

Assault


An incident, other than a robbery, where the respondent was physically attacked or threatened with force or violence. Reference: Crime and Safety, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4509.0).

Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC)


A classification of businesses by type of activity. Reference: Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification 2006 (ABS cat. no. 1292.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register (ABSBR)


The ABSBR is a register of all Australian businesses and contains identifying and classificatory data for each business. Information to populate the register is largely sourced from the ABR. The ABSBR is used as a source for survey frames and counts. The ABSBR consists of two sub-populations, the Australian Bureau of Statistics maintained population (ABSMP) and the Australian Tax Office maintained population (ATOMP). The ABSBR uses an economic statistics unit model to describe the characteristics of businesses and the structural relationships between related businesses. Reference: Counts of Australian Businesses, including Entries and Exits (ABS cat. no. 8165.0).

Australian Customs value


The value for import duty purposes determined by Customs. The primary basis for its establishment is the price actually paid or payable, provided a number of conditions are met. The most important is that the buyer and seller must be independent. If these conditions are not met World Trade Organization (WTO) rules are used to determine the Customs value. It is the prime valuation method used by ABS for disseminating international merchandise import statistics. Reference: International Merchandise Trade, Australia: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2001 (ABS cat. no. 5489.0).

Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED)


The Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED) is a new Australian standard classification and replaces the ABS Classification of Qualifications (ABSCQ). ASCED is comprised of two component classifications, Level of Education and Field of Education. It provides a basis for comparable administrative and statistical data on educational activities and attainment classified by level and field. Reference: Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (ABS cat. no. 1272.0).

Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO)


The Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) is the product of a development program undertaken jointly by a project team from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Statistics New Zealand (Statistics NZ) and the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations for use in the collection, publication and analysis of occupation statistics. ANZSCO provides a basis for the standardised collection, analysis and dissemination of occupation data for Australia and New Zealand. The use of ANZSCO has resulted in improved comparability of occupation statistics produced by the two countries.

ANZSCO replaces the Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) Second Edition and the New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (NZSCO) 1999 used in Australia and New Zealand, respectively. ANZSCO is intended to provide an integrated framework for storing, organising and reporting occupation-related information in both statistical and client-oriented applications, such as matching job seekers to job vacancies and providing career information. Reference: Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO), First Edition, Revision 1 (cat. no. 1220.0).

Australia's Register of the National Estate

Australia’s national register of places of natural, historical and Indigenous significance. Reference: Bureau of Rural Sciences, Australia's State of the Forests Report, 2003.

Available beds


Beds immediately available for use by admitted patients as required. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Average annual growth rate


The average annual growth rate, r, is calculated as a percentage using the formula:



where P0 is the population at the start of the period, Pn is the population at the end of the period and n is the length of the period between P0 and Pn in years. Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).

Average length of stay


The average number of patient days for admitted patient episodes. Patients admitted and separated on the same day are allocated a length of stay of one day. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Average loan


The average loan series is calculated using the total value of lending commitments per month and the total number of dwellings financed per month. The average loan series does not necessarily represent the average loan size per dwelling. Reference: Housing Finance, Australia (ABS cat. no. 5609.0).

Average takings per room night occupied


The takings from accommodation divided by the total number of room nights occupied for the survey period. Reference: Tourist Accommodation, Australia (ABS cat. no. 8635.0).

Average weekly earnings


Average weekly earnings statistics represent average gross (before tax) earnings of employees and do not relate to average award rates nor to the earnings of the ‘average person’. Estimates of average weekly earnings are derived by dividing estimates of weekly total earnings by estimates of number of employees. Reference: Average Weekly Earnings, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6302.0).

Bail


This is generally a pre-sentence option where a person is released into the community for a period before they appear in court for trial or final sentencing. Bail orders can require a financial surety to be lodged with the court, and a number of conditions including supervision and residential requirements designed to ensure the re-appearance of the person at court. Bail counts are available only in states and territories where bail orders are supervised by corrective services. Reference: Corrective Services, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

Balancing item


Calculated as the residual of Gross State Product (GSP) less state final demand less international trade in exports of goods and services, plus international trade in imports of goods and services. The balancing item implicitly comprises changes in inventories, total net interstate trade and a statistical discrepancy. Reference: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

Before and/or after school care program


A type of formal care provided for school aged children before and/or after school during the school term. Some services also provide care on 'pupil free days'. The services usually make use of established facilities such as schools, community halls, and recreation centres. Reference: Child Care, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4402.0).

Birth


The delivery of a child, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, who, after being born, breathes or shows any other evidence of life such as heartbeat. Reference: Births, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).

Birthweight


The first weight of the baby (stillborn or liveborn) obtained after birth (usually measured to the nearest 5 grams and obtained within one hour of birth). Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australia's mothers and babies (AIHW cat. no. PER 34), AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.

Blended family


A couple family containing two or more children aged 0-17 years, of whom at least one is the natural or adopted child of both members of the couple, and at least one is the step child of either member of the couple. Blended families may also include other children who are not the natural children of either parent. Reference: Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Body Mass Index (BMI)


A measure calculated from self-reported height and weight data. The formula is weight (kg) divided by the square of height (m). To produce a measure of the prevalence of overweight or obesity in adults, BMI values are grouped in a way which allows categories to be reported against NHMRC guidelines. Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Bond/recognizance


There are several different types of bonds which may be imposed by a court. Generally they all require the offender to be 'of good behaviour' for a certain length of time and may impose other conditions as well. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Break and enter/attempted break and enter


An incident where a person's home, garage or shed had been broken into, or where an attempt was made to break into a person's home, garage or shed. Break and enter offences relating to a car or garden are excluded. Reference: Crime and Safety, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4509.0).

Bridging data


Data produced taking into account the quantification of differences in the scope of (usually) consecutive survey population characteristics, thus enabling serial analysis of selected data items. Reference: Australian Industry (ABS cat. no. 8155.0).

Broadband


An 'always on' Internet connection with an access speed equal to or greater than 256 Kilobits per second. Reference: Household Use of Information Technology (ABS cat. no. 8146.0).

Cancer case


These are individual cancers. A person may have more than one cancer giving rise to multiple cases in the same person. Second cases in one person are only counted if they are of different cell type or originate in a different organ. Reference: NSW Central Cancer Registry, Cancer in NSW Incidence and Mortality Report 2006.

Capital expenditure


Expenditure on large-scale fixed assets (for example, new buildings and equipment with a useful life extending over a number of years). Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Care and protection order


Care and protection orders can be grouped into four categories: guardianship orders involves the transfer of legal guardianship to an authorised department or to an individual; custody orders refer to a third party being responsible for the day-to-day requirements of the child while the parent retains guardianship; supervisory orders require authorised departments to supervise the level of care provided to the child; interim and temporary orders provide for a limited period of supervision and/or placement of a child. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Child Protection, Australia 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. CWS 26).

Carer


A person of any age who provides any informal assistance, in terms of help or supervision, to persons with disabilities or long term conditions, or older persons (i.e. aged 60 years and over). The assistance has to be ongoing, or likely to be ongoing, for at least six months. Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Cases registered


A case is made up of a number of charges for one or more accused that were registered together. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Casualty


Any person killed or injured as a result of a crash. Reference: Roads and Traffic Authority of NSW, Road Traffic Crashes in NSW, 2005.

Causes of death


Underlying causes of death are classified to the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10 for 1997 and onwards). Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Census Collection District


The Census Collection District (CD) is the smallest geographic area defined in the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC). Generally defined as an area that one Collector can comfortably cover delivering and collecting Census forms. CDs are defined for each Census and are current only at Census time. Reference: 2006 Census Dictionary (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Chain volume measures


Estimates that exclude the direct effects of changes in prices. Unlike current measure estimates, they take account of changes to price relativities that occur from one year to the next. Annually re-weighted chain volume indexes are referenced to the current price values in a chosen reference year. Reference: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

Changeover buyer


A household which bought their dwelling in the three years prior to being interviewed, and either the reference person or partner had owned or been purchasing a home previously. Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Child protection report


A child protection report is initiated when a person makes contact with the Department of Community Services about a concern for a child’s or young person’s welfare or safety. Reference: NSW Department of Community Services, 2006, Annual Statistical Report, 2004-05.

Civilian population aged 15 years and over


All usual residents of Australia aged 15 years and over except members of the permanent defence forces, certain diplomatic personnel of overseas governments customarily excluded from census and estimated population counts, overseas residents in Australia, and members of non-Australian defence forces (and their dependants) stationed in Australia. Reference: Labour Force, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6202.0).

Cleared criminal incidents


A cleared criminal incident is one which, in the view of police, has been satisfactorily cleared by the commencement of legal proceedings or otherwise. An incident is cleared by the commencement of legal proceedings when police have laid a charge or an information against at least one person. The information may have been laid with a view to the issuing of a warrant, summons or other process for the purpose of bringing an offender before the court. A criminal incident is cleared other than by commencement of legal proceedings when, under normal circumstances, a charge or information would have been laid against at least one person, but, for a variety of reasons, police have been unable to make an arrest, despite knowing the identity of the offender and having sufficient evidence to support a charge. Examples of situations in which an offence may be cleared other than by charge include the following:

  • the offender is a juvenile and is cautioned;
  • the offender has died before a charge is made or information laid;
  • the offender has been committed to a psychiatric institution and is unlikely to be released;
  • there is an obstacle to charging, such as diplomatic immunity;
  • the complainant or essential witness is dead and proceedings would be aborted;
  • the offender is serving a sentence and police consider that no useful purpose would be served by prosecution.
Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Closed drug treatment episodes


Refers to a period of contact, with defined dates of commencement and cessation, between a client and a treatment agency. A closed drug treatment episode may be for a specific treatment, such as information and education only, that may be part of a larger treatment plan; or it may be for a specific treatment, such as withdrawal management (detoxification), that is part of a long term overall treatment plan. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services in Australia, 2004-05: Findings from the National Minimum Dataset (AODS-NMDS) (AIHW cat. no. HSE 43).

Community-based corrections


This refers to the community-based management of court-ordered sanctions, post-prison administrative arrangements and fine conversions, which principally involve the provision of one or more of the following activities: supervision, programs or community work. Reference: Corrective Services, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

Community Aged Care Packages


A Commonwealth-funded program designed to provide assistance to enable frail or disabled older people with complex care needs to continue living in the community. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), 2006, Residential Aged Care in Australia, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. AGE 45).

Community health


Non-residential health services offered by public or registered non-profit establishments to patients/clients, in an integrated and coordinated manner in a community setting, or the coordination of health services elsewhere in the community. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), 2006, Health Expenditure Australia, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HWE 35).

Community mental health service


A service or facility that delivers specialised non-admitted mental health services, in hospitals, community-based settings, or residential care. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2005, Mental health services in Australia, 2003-04 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 40).

Community Service Order


The offender is ordered to perform a specified number of hours of unpaid community service work. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Composite Estimation


The estimation methodology used in the Labour Force Survey. Composite Estimation uses sample responses from nearby months as well as from the reference month to derive estimates for the reference month. This approach achieves gains in efficiency by exploiting the high similarity between the responses provided by the same respondent in previous months. For details see Information Paper: Forthcoming Changes to Labour Force Statistics, 2007 (ABS cat. no. 6292.0). Reference: Labour Force, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6202.0).

Construction of dwellings


Construction of dwellings represents commitments made to individuals to finance, by way of progress payments, the construction of owner occupied dwellings. Reference: Housing Finance, Australia (ABS cat. no. 5609.0).

Consumption of fixed capital


The reduction in the value of fixed assets used in production during the accounting period resulting from physical deterioration, normal obsolescence or normal accidental damage. Unforeseen obsolescence, major catastrophes and the depletion of natural resources are not taken into account. Reference: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

Continuous duration with current employer/business


The length of the current period of employment people had with their employer or in their own business. The length of time includes periods of paid leave, unpaid leave or strike. Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Contributing family workers


A person who works without pay, in an economic enterprise operated by a relative. Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Control order


Includes fixed term, minimum and additional term with Department of Juvenile Justice supervision, minimum and additional term with other supervision and minimum and additional term with no supervision. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Conversions, etc.


A conversion is building activity which converts a non-residential building to a residential building (e.g. conversion of a warehouse to residential apartments). Reference: Building Activity, Australia (ABS cat. no. 8752.0).

Convicted ex parte


Includes cases where the accused either: (i) pleaded guilty and was convicted in his/her absence; or (ii) failed to appear, was convicted by the court on the evidence presented and a conviction warrant issued by the court for the offender in order to impose a penalty. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Core activity limitation


A person's overall level of core activity limitation is determined by their highest level of limitation in any of the core activities (communication, mobility or self care). There are four levels:
  • profound: the person is unable to do, or always needs help with, a core-activity task;
  • severe: the person sometimes needs help with a core-activity task; or has difficulty understanding or being understood by family or friends; or can communicate more easily using non-spoken forms of communication;
  • moderate: the person needs no help but has difficulty with a core activity task;
  • mild: the person needs no help and has no difficulty with any of the core activity tasks, but uses aids and equipment; or cannot easily walk 200 metres or up and down stairs without a handrail or easily bend to pick up an object from the floor or has difficulty using public transport.

Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Corrective services custody


Confinement in a place intended primarily for the purpose of confining prisoners, such as a prison, prison farm, Periodic Detention Centre or Community Custody Centre. Reference: Corrective Services, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

Couple family


A family based on two persons who are in a registered or de facto marriage and who are usually resident in the same household. The family may include any number of dependents, non-dependents and other related individuals. A couple family can consist of a couple without children present in the household. Reference: Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).


Court jurisdiction


There are two jurisdictions in the NSW Higher Courts: the Supreme Court, which hears cases in Sydney and on circuit in country centres, and the District Court, which has a number of metropolitan and country sites. The Supreme Court deals only with the most serious criminal matters. The District Court deals with all other matters on indictment and appeals against conviction or sentence arising from Local Court cases. In tables where Jurisdiction is shown this reflects the Jurisdiction at which the case was registered and not where it was finalised. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Crash


Any apparently unpremeditated event reported to the police and resulting in death, injury or property damage attributable to the movement of a road vehicle on a road. Reference: Roads and Traffic Authority of NSW, Road Traffic Crashes in NSW, 2006.

Crude divorce rate


The number of decrees absolute granted during the calendar year per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June. Reference: Divorces, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3307.0.55.001).

Crude marriage rate


The number of marriages registered during the calendar year per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June. Reference: Marriages, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3306.0.55.001).

Current prices


Estimates are valued at the prices of the period to which the observation relates. For example, estimates for 2003-04 are valued using 2003-04 prices. This contrasts to chain volume measures where the prices used in valuation refer to the prices of a previous period. Reference: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

De facto marriage


The relationship between two people who live together in a consensual union who are not registered as married to each other. A de facto marriage may exist between a couple of the opposite sex or of the same sex. Reference: Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Death


Death is the permanent disappearance of all evidence of life after birth has taken place. The definition excludes deaths prior to live birth. For the purposes of the Vitals and Causes of Death collections of the ABS, a death refers to any death which occurs in, or en route to Australia and is registered with a state or territory Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages. Reference: Deaths, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3302.0).

Decile


Groupings that result from ranking all households or people in the population in ascending order according to some characteristic such as their household income and then dividing the population into 10 equal groups, each comprising 10% of the estimated population. Reference: Household Wealth and Wealth Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6554.0).

Dependent child/ren


An individual who is either a child aged under 15 years or a child aged 15-24 years who is a full-time dependent student. To be regarded as a child the individual cannot have a partner or child of his or her own usually resident in the household. Reference: Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Dial-up connections


Connection to the Internet via modem and dial-up software utilising the public switched telecommunication network (PSTN). Reference: Household Use of Information Technology (ABS cat. no. 8146.0).

Disability status


A disability or restrictive long term health condition exists if a limitation, restriction, impairment, disease or disorder, has lasted, or is expected to last for six months or more, and which restricts everyday activities.

It is classified by whether or not a person has a specific limitation or restriction. Specific limitation or restriction is further classified by whether the limitation or restriction is a limitation in core activities or a schooling/employment restriction only.

There are four levels of core activity limitation (profound, severe, moderate and mild) which are based on whether a person needs help, has difficulty, or uses aids or equipment with any of the core activities (self care, mobility or communication). A person's overall level of core activity limitation is determined by their highest level of limitation in these activities. Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Discouraged jobseekers


Persons with marginal attachment to the labour force who wanted to work and were available to start work within the next four weeks but were not actively looking for work, as they believed they would not find a job for any of the following reasons: considered to be too young/too old by employers; lacked necessary schooling, training, skills or experience; difficulties because of language or ethnic background; no jobs in their locality or line of work; no jobs available at all. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Disposable income


Gross income less income tax, the Medicare levy and the Medicare levy surcharge i.e. remaining income after taxes are deducted, which is available to support consumption and/or saving. Disposable income is sometimes referred to as net income. Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).


Domestic relationship


A domestic relationship exists when a person:
  • Is a current or former spouse; or
  • Is a current or former de facto partner (which includes couples in gay and lesbian relationships); or
  • Is in or has been in an intimate relationship with the victim; or
  • Cares or has cared for the victim; or
  • Resides with or has resided with the victim; or
  • Is or has been a relative of the victim.

Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, Domestic Violence Interagency Guidelines.

Drug-induced deaths


Any death where the underlying cause of death was due to:
  • an acute episode of poisoning or toxicity to drugs. Included are deaths from accidental overdoses due to misuse of drugs, intentional self-harm, assault and deaths undetermined as to intent; or
  • an acute condition caused by drug use where the deceased person was identified as drug dependent.

The term 'drug' refers to substances classified as drugs, medicaments or biological substances under ICD-10 guidelines. These drugs may by used for medicinal or therapeutic purposes, or to produce a psychoactive effect. The term excludes alcohol, tobacco and volatile solvents (e.g. petrol). Reference: Information paper: Drug-Induced Deaths-A Guide to ABS Causes of Death Data (ABS cat. no. 4809.0.55.001).

Duration of imprisonment


Average duration of imprisonment is the mean length of time in months of the non-parole period imposed on the principal offence. Sentences of cumulative imprisonment are excluded, in which case only the penalty for the principal offence is shown. The calculation of the average duration of imprisonment does not include sentences of life imprisonment. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Duration of unemployment


Under the redesigned Labour Force Survey questionnaire, implemented in April 2001, the definition of duration of unemployment is the shorter of:
  • the period of time from when an unemployed person began looking for work, until the end of the reference week; or
  • the period of time since an unemployed person last worked in any job for two weeks or more, until the end of the reference week.

Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Dwelling


Defined as a suite of rooms contained within a building which are self-contained and intended for long-term residential use. To be self-contained the suite of rooms must possess cooking and bathing facilities as building fixtures. See also Dwelling structure. Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Dwelling structure


The dwelling structure type is determined by the structure of the building that contains the dwelling. Households belong to one of four dwelling categories:
  • separate house;
  • semi-detached, row or terrace house or townhouse flat, unit, or apartment and;
  • other dwelling, including caravan or cabin in a caravan park, houseboat in a marina, caravan not in a caravan park, houseboat not in a marina and house or flat attached to a shop.

Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Elective surgery


Elective care in which the procedures required by patients are listed in the surgical operations section of the Medicare Benefits Schedule, with the exclusion of specific procedures frequently done by non-surgical clinicians and some procedures for which the associated waiting time is strongly influenced by factors other than the supply of services. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Emergency department waiting time to service delivery


The time elapsed for each patient from presentation to the emergency department to commencement of service by a treating medical officer or nurse. It is calculated by deducting the date and time the patient presents from the date and time of the service event. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Employed


All persons aged 15 years and over who, during the reference week:
  • worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind, in a job or business, or on a farm (comprising employees, employers and own account workers); or
  • worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. contributing family workers); or
  • were employees who had a job but were not at work; or
  • were employers or own account workers, who had a job, business or farm but were not at work.

Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Employees


From November 2008 the Forms of Employment Survey definition of employees differs from the definition used in the Labour Force Survey and other household surveys (including earlier FOES) and employer surveys.
  • Forms of Employment Survey (from November 2008): Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages or salary. Employees are engaged under a contract of service (an employment contract) and take directions from their employer/supervisor/manager/foreman on how the work is performed.
  • Labour Force Survey and other household surveys (including FOES prior to 2008): Employees are people who:
  • worked for a public or private employer; and
  • received remuneration in wages, salary, or are paid a retainer fee by their employer and worked on a commission basis, or for tips or piece-rates or payment in kind; or
  • operated their own incorporated enterprise with or without hiring employees.
  • Employer surveys: Employees are wage and salary earners who received pay for any part of the reference period.

Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia, Nov 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Employees (excluding OMIEs) without paid leave entitlements


Employees excluding Owner Managers of Incorporated Enterprises (OMIEs), who were not entitled to, or did not know whether they were entitled to, paid sick and paid holiday leave. Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Employees (excluding OMIEs) with paid leave entitlements


Employees excluding Owner Managers of Incorporated Enterprises (OMIEs), who were entitled to either paid sick leave or paid holiday leave (or both). Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Employment at end of June


Number of persons working for businesses during the last pay period ending in June of the given year. Includes working proprietors and partners, employees absent on paid or prepaid leave, employees on workers' compensation who continue to be paid through the payroll, and contract workers paid through the payroll. Excludes persons paid by commission only, non-salaried directors, volunteers and self-employed persons such as consultants and contractors. Reference: Australian Industry (ABS cat. no. 8155.0).

Employment injuries


All injuries resulting from accidents and all occupational diseases contracted or aggravated in the course of a worker's employment. Reference: WorkCover Authority of NSW, Workers Compensation Statistical Bulletin, 2004-05.

Employment restriction


An employment restriction is determined for persons with one or more disabilities if because of their disability they are: permanently unable to work; or are restricted in the type of work they can do; or need at least one day a week off work on average, or are restricted in the number of hours they can work; or require an employer to provide special equipment, or modify the work environment, or make special arrangements; or need to be given ongoing assistance or supervision; or require assistance from a disability job placement program; or would find it difficult to change jobs or get a preferred job. Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Endangered ecological communities


An ecological community is eligible to be listed as an endangered ecological community if, in the opinion of the Scientific Committee:
  • it is likely to become extinct in nature in NSW unless the circumstances and factors threatening its survival cease to operate; or
  • it might already be extinct.

Reference: Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Endangered populations


A population is eligible to be listed as an endangered population if, in the opinion of the Scientific Committee, it is facing a high risk of becoming extinct in nature in NSW and it is of conservation value at the State or regional level. The intention of the criteria is to exclude from listing isolated populations of limited conservation value. Reference: Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Endangered species


A species is eligible to be listed as an endangered species if, in the opinion of the Scientific Committee:
  • it is likely to become extinct in nature in NSW unless the circumstances and factors threatening its survival or evolutionary development cease to operate; or
  • its numbers have been reduced to such a critical level, or its habitats have been so drastically reduced, that it is in immediate danger of extinction; or
  • it might already be extinct, but is not presumed extinct.

Reference: Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Equity in the dwelling


A household's equity in the dwelling is the difference between the value of the dwelling and the total amount outstanding on mortgages taken out on the dwelling for any purpose, or unsecured loans taken out for housing purposes. From 2003-04 excludes amounts of loans for business and investment purposes secured against the dwelling. Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Equivalised disposable household income


Disposable household income adjusted using an equivalence scale. For a lone person household it is equal to disposable household income. For a household comprising more than one person, it is an indicator of the disposable household income that would need to be received by a lone person household to enjoy the same level of economic wellbeing as the household in question. Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Established dwelling


A dwelling that has been completed, for 12 months or more, prior to the lodgement of a loan application, or has been previously occupied. Reference: Lending Finance, Australia (ABS cat. no. 5671.0).

Established house

The House Price Index covers transactions in detached residential dwellings on their own block of land regardless of age (i.e. including new houses sold as a house/land package as well as second-hand houses). Price changes therefore relate to changes in the total price of dwelling and land. Reference: House Price Indexes: Eight Capital Cities (ABS cat. no. 6416.0).

Estimated Resident Population (ERP)


The official measure of the population of Australia is based on the concept of residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality or citizenship, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months. Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).

Exercise level


Based on frequency, intensity (i.e. walking, moderate exercise and vigorous exercise) and duration of exercise (for recreation, sport or fitness) in the two weeks prior to interview. From these components, an exercise score was derived using factors to represent the intensity of the exercise. Scores were grouped for output as Sedentary (includes no exercise), Low, Moderate, or High. Reference: National Health Survey, Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Extended Aged Care at Home (EACH)


The Extended Aged Care at Home (EACH) program delivers care at home that is equivalent to high level residential care. This program began as a pilot in 2000, but is now established as an ongoing program. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Residential Aged Care in Australia 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. AGE 45).

Extended labour force underutilisation rate


Extended labour force underutilisation rate includes the unemployed, plus the underemployed, plus two groups of marginally attached to the labour force: (i) persons actively looking for work, not available to start work in the reference week, but available to start work within four weeks, and (ii) discouraged jobseekers, as a percentage of the labour force augmented by (i) and (ii). Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Family


Two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering; and who are usually resident in the same household. The basis of a family is formed by identifying the presence of a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households will, therefore, contain more than one family. Reference: Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Family stream (Migration Program)


Those categories of the Migration Program where the core eligibility criteria are based on a close family relationship with an Australian citizen or permanent resident sponsor. The immediate accompanying families of principal applicants in the family stream (e.g. children of spouses) are also counted as part of the family stream. This definition of family stream is used by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) who administer the Migration Program. Reference: Migration, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3412.0).

Family day care


A type of formal care provided by experienced caregivers in their own homes, available for a full day or part day. Schemes are administered and supported by central coordination units. Reference: Child Care, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4402.0).

Fatality


A person who dies within 30 days of a crash as a result of injuries received in that crash. Reference: Roads and Traffic Authority of NSW, Road Traffic Crashes in NSW, 2006.

Fatigue


The identification of fatigue as a contributing factor in road crashes cannot always be determined directly from police reports. Fatigue is considered to have been involved as a contributing factor to a road crash if that crash involved at least one fatigued motor vehicle controller. A motor vehicle controller is assessed as having been fatigued if the following conditions are satisfied together or separately:
  • the vehicle’s controller was described by police as being asleep, drowsy or fatigued;
  • the vehicle performed a manoeuvre which suggested loss of concentration of the controller due to fatigue.

Reference: Roads and Traffic Authority of NSW, Road Traffic Crashes in NSW, 2006.

Federally-sentenced prisoner


Persons charged and sentenced under a Commonwealth statute or transferred from another country to serve their sentence in Australia. Reference: Corrective Services, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

Fetal death


A fetal death is the delivery of a child, who did not, at any time after delivery, breathe or show any other evidence of life such as a heartbeat. A birthweight criterion applies (see perinatal death). Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Final consumption expenditure (general government)


Net expenditure on goods and services by public authorities, other than those classified as public corporations, which does not result in the creation of fixed assets or inventories or in the acquisition of land and existing buildings or second-hand assets. Reference: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

Final consumption expenditure (households)


Net expenditure on goods and services by persons and expenditure of a current nature by private non-profit institutions serving households. This item excludes expenditures by unincorporated businesses and expenditures on assets by non-profit institutions (included in gross fixed capital formation). Reference: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

Finance commitment


A firm offer of finance which either has been, or is normally expected to be, accepted. Commitments accepted and cancelled in the same month are included. Commitments to non-residents are excluded. Reference: Lending Finance, Australia (ABS cat. no. 5671.0).

Finance lease


Refers to the leasing or hiring of tangible assets under an agreement, other than a hire purchase agreement, which substantially transfers from the lessor to the lessee all the risks and benefits incident to ownership of the asset without transferring the legal ownership. Reference: Lending Finance, Australia (ABS cat. no. 5671.0).

Financial assets


An asset whose value arises not from its physical existence (as would a building, piece of land, or capital equipment) but from a contractual relationship. Financial assets are mostly financial claims (with the exception of shares). Financial claims entitle the owner to receive a payment, or a series of payments, from an institutional unit to which the owner has provided funds. Examples include accounts held with financial institutions, ownership of an incorporated business, debentures and bonds, trusts, superannuation funds, and loans to other persons. Reference: Household Wealth and Wealth Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6554.0).

Fine option


A community-based sentence type where the offender is serving a sentence for default of a fine. In most jurisdictions this order type requires an offender to complete community service as a reparatory act. Reference: Corrective Services, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

First home buyer


A household which bought their dwelling in the three years prior to being interviewed, and neither the reference person nor their co-resident partner had owned or been purchasing a home previously. Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Fixed loans


A commitment for a fixed amount for a fixed period for a specific purpose. Reference: Lending Finance, Australia (ABS cat. no. 5671.0).

Formal child care


Regulated care away from the child's home. The main types of formal care are before and/or after school care, long day care, family day care and occasional care. Preschool has been excluded from the definition of formal care. This was due to the widely accepted view that the main focus of preschools is education and preparing children for school, rather than providing a child care service. Many child care services also include developmental and educational programs and preschools provide a child care service at the same time as they provide education, so there is some overlap. Data on preschool attendance continued to be collected as part of the survey but, where possible, preschool is presented separately from formal child care. Reference: Child Care, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4402.0).

Formal learning


Refers to learning which is structured, taught learning in institutions and organisations and leads to a recognised qualification issued by a relevant body, in recognition that a person has achieved learning outcomes or competencies relevant to identified individual, professional, industry or community needs. A learning activity is formal if it leads to a learning achievement that is possible to position within the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) and includes workplace training if such training results in a qualification. Reference: Adult Learning, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4229.0).

Formal reserves


Nature conservation reserves and reserves meeting the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) categories as defined by the IUCN Commission for National Parks and Protected Areas (1994). Reference: Bureau of Rural Sciences, Australia's State of the Forests Report, 2003.

Free on board (f.o.b.)


The value of goods measured on a free on board (f.o.b.) basis includes all production and other costs incurred up until the goods are placed on board the international carrier for export. Free on board values exclude international insurance and transport costs. They include the value of the outside packaging in which the product is wrapped, but do not include the value of the international freight containers used for transporting the goods. Reference: International Merchandise Trade, Australia: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2001 (ABS cat. no. 5489.0).

Fugitive emissions


These emissions are not fully controlled, but in most cases are not accidental. Examples of fugitive emissions are leaks from gas pipelines and valves, venting and flaring of gases, methane emissions from coal seams and vapour given off by petroleum stores. Reference: NSW Department of Environment and Heritage, The National Greenhouse Strategy, 1998.

Full-time custody


A type of custody where a prisoner is required to be held in custody on a full-time basis. This includes prisons and work outreach camps. Full-time prison custody excludes periodic detention. Reference: Corrective Services, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

Full-time employees


Full-time employees are permanent, temporary and casual employees who normally work the agreed or award hours for a full-time employee in their occupation and received pay for any part of the reference period. If agreed or award hours do not apply, employees are regarded as full-time if they ordinarily work 35 hours or more per week. Reference: Average Weekly Earnings, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6302.0).

Full-time equivalent (FTE)


This is the addition of those defined as full-time (who have an imputed value of 1.0) with the sum of the imputed values of those defined as part-time (who are assessed as having a value between 0.1 and 0.9). The term can apply to both students and staff. Reference: Schools, Australia, Preliminary (cat. no. 4220.0).

Gestational age


The duration of pregnancy in completed weeks calculated from the date of the first day of a woman’s last menstrual period and her baby’s date of birth, or via ultrasound, or derived from clinical assessment during pregnancy or from examination of the baby after birth. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australia's mothers and babies (AIHW cat. no. PER 34), AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.

Gini coefficient


The Gini coefficient is a single statistic which summarises the distribution of income across the population. It ranges between zero when all incomes are equal and one when one unit receives all the income. The smaller the Gini coefficient the more even the distribution of income. Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Government income support


The data have been compiled using Centrelink data on income support customers. People receiving more than one Department of Family and Community Services payment are only counted once by using the main payment type. The main payments types include: Age pension; Disability Support Pension; Newstart Allowance; Parenting Payment Single; Youth Allowance; and other pensions and allowances. Excluded are Bereavement Allowance, Childcare Benefit, Farm Family Restart, and Family Tax Benefits Parts A and B. The data includes both customers receiving a payment and those customers temporarily suspended or zero paid due to income/assets test provisions or other administrative procedures. Reference: Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs.

Government pensions and allowances/Government cash benefits


Income support payments from government to persons under social security and related government programs. Included are pensions and allowances received by aged, disabled, unemployed and sick persons, families and children, veterans or their survivors, and study allowances for students. All overseas pensions and benefits are included here, although some may not be paid by overseas governments.

The one–off payments to carers and to older Australians paid in 2006–07 and 2007–08 are included. Family Tax Benefit, Baby Bonus (formerly known as Maternity Payment) and Child Disability Assistance Payment paid to recipients of Carer Allowance are also included in government pensions and allowances.
Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Greater Metropolitan Area (GMA)


Comprises Sydney SD, Newcastle SSD and Illawarra SD. Reference: Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport, Household Travel Survey Summary Report.

Greenhouse gas


Gases that contribute to global warming, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). In addition, the photochemically important gases - NMVOCs, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) - are also considered. NMVOC, NOx and CO are not direct greenhouse gases. However, they contribute indirectly to the greenhouse effect by influencing the rate at which ozone and other greenhouse gases are produced and destroyed in the atmosphere. Reference: NSW Department of Environment and Heritage, National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, 2002.

Gross domestic product (GDP)


The total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus GDP, as here defined, is 'at market prices'. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services. Reference: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

Gross income


Regular cash receipts before income tax or the Medicare levy are deducted. Excludes family tax benefit paid through the tax system or as a lump sum by Centrelink. Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Gross incurred cost of workplace injuries


Refers to the sum of compensation payment plus an estimate of future liability if the claim is still open at the end of the current financial year. Reference: WorkCover Authority of NSW, Workers Compensation Statistical Bulletin 2004-05.

Gross State Product (GSP)


GSP is defined equivalently to gross domestic product (GDP) but refers to production within a state or territory rather than to the nation as a whole. The GSP measure used in this publication is GSP(A), which is a simple average of GSP using the production approach, GSP(P), and the income and expenditure approach, GSP(I/E). Reference: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

Gross value of commodities produced


The value placed on commodities at the point of sale (i.e. market place). Reference: Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced (ABS cat. no. 7503.0).

Group household


A household consisting of two or more unrelated people where all persons are aged 15 years or over. There are no reported couple relationships, parent-child relationships or other blood relationships in these households. Reference: 2006 Census Dictionary (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Health risk factors


Specific lifestyle and related factors impacting on health, including:
  • Tobacco smoking;
  • Alcohol consumption;
  • Exercise;
  • Body mass; and
  • Dietary behaviours - fruit, vegetable and milk consumption.

Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

High-level residential care


Care provided to residents in residential care facilities (RCS) who have been classified as having a need for and are receiving a very high level of care (i.e. patients classified in RCS categories 1-4). Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), 2006, Health Expenditure Australia, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HWE 35).

Higher court


There are two jurisdictions in the NSW Higher Courts, the Supreme Court and the District Court. The Supreme Court deals only with the most serious matters. The District Court deals with all other matters on indictment and appeals against conviction or sentence arising from Local Court cases. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Higher education student


A person who has been admitted to a higher education institution and who is enrolled (either full-time, part-time or externally) in a higher education award course, an enabling course or a non-award course to be undertaken in the semester used as the reference period. Reference: Department of Education Science and Training, Students 2003: Selected Higher Education Statistics.

Home and Community Care (HACC) Client


A client that receives HACC services because they are frail or disabled. Reference: Department of Ageing and Health, Home and Community Care Program National Minimum Data Set (HACC MDS), HACC MDS Annual Bulletin 2004-05.

Homelessness


Includes 'primary', 'secondary' and 'tertiary' homelessness. Primary homelessness: people without conventional accommodation (living on the streets, in deserted buildings, improvised dwellings, under bridges, in parks etc.). Secondary homelessness: people moving between various forms of temporary shelter including friends, emergency accommodation, youth refuges, hostels and boarding houses. Tertiary homelessness: people living in single rooms in private boarding houses-without their own bathroom, kitchen, or security of tenure. Reference: Counting the Homeless (ABS cat. no. 2050.0).

Hospital


A health care facility established under Commonwealth, State or Territory legislation as a hospital or a free-standing day procedure unit and authorised to provide treatment and/or care to patients. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Household


A group of two or more related or unrelated people who usually reside in the same dwelling, who regard themselves as a household, and who make common provision for food or other essentials for living; or a person living in a dwelling who makes provision for his/her own food and other essentials for living, without combining with any other person. Reference: Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

House price index


The Established House Price index refers to detached residential dwellings on their own block of land regardless of age. Price changes therefore relate to changes in the total price of dwelling and land. The Project Home Price index refers to dwellings available for construction on a client's block of land. Price therefore relate only to the price of the dwelling (excluding land). Reference: House Price Indexes: Eight Capital Cities (ABS cat. no. 6416.0).

Housing costs


Housing costs for the purpose of this publication comprise:
  • rent payments,
  • rates payments (general and water),
  • mortgage or unsecured loan payments, if the initial purpose was primarily to buy, add to or alter the dwelling.

Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Housing costs as a proportion of income


The total weekly housing costs of a group (e.g. one parent households) are divided by the total weekly income of that group, expressed as a percentage. Households with nil or negative total income are not included in this calculation. Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Humanitarian Program


The Humanitarian Program provides protection to refugees and resettlement to those for whom it may be the appropriate durable solution. The Humanitarian Program is administered by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC). Reference: Migration, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3412.0).

Illicit drugs


Illegal drugs, drugs and volatile substances used illicitly or inappropriately, and pharmaceuticals used for non-medical purposes. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), National Drug Strategy Household Survey.

Imprisonment


Sentences imposed on a defendant requiring a person to be detained within a facility built especially for the purpose of incarceration. Includes: life and indeterminate imprisonment, imprisonment with determined term, imprisonment with partially suspended term, periodic detention, juvenile detention with determined term, and juvenile detention with partially suspended term. Reference: Criminal Courts, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4513.0).

Income


Income consists of all current receipts, whether monetary or in kind, that are received by the household or by individual members of the household, and which are available for, or intended to support, current consumption.

Income includes receipts from:
  • wages and salaries and other receipts from employment (whether from an employer or own incorporated enterprise), including income provided as part of salary sacrificed and/or salary package arrangements;
  • profit/loss from own unincorporated business (including partnerships);
  • net investment income (interest, rent, dividends, royalties);
  • government pensions and allowances;
  • private transfers (e.g. superannuation, workers' compensation, income from annuities, child support, and financial support received from family members not living in the same household).

Note that child support and other transfers from other households are not deducted from the incomes of the households making the transfers. Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Incorporated business


A business which is registered as a separate legal entity to its members or owners. Also known as a limited liability company. Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Independent contractors


Independent contractors are people who operate their own business and who contract to perform services for others without having the legal status of an employee, i.e. people who are engaged by a client, rather than an employer. Independent contractors are engaged under a contract for services (a commercial contract), whereas employees are engaged under a contract of service (an employment contract). Independent contractors' employment may take a variety of forms, for example, they may have a direct relationship with a client or work through an intermediary. Independent contractors may have employees, however they spend most of their time directly engaged with clients or on client tasks, rather than managing their staff. Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia, Nov 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Index of disadvantage


This is one of four Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFAs) compiled by ABS following each Census of Population and Housing. The indexes are compiled from various characteristics of persons resident in particular areas; the index of disadvantage summarises attributes such as low income, low educational attainment, high unemployment and jobs in relatively unskilled occupations. As shown in this publication, 1st quintile refers to the most disadvantaged group, while 5th quintile refers to the least disadvantaged group. Reference: National Health Survey: Users' Guide, 2007-08 (cat. no. 4363.0.55.001).

Indigenous


A person is defined to be of Indigenous origin if he or she identifies themselves as of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin. Reference: 2006 Census Dictionary (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Industrial dispute


A state of disagreement over an issue or group of issues between an employer and its employees, which results in employees ceasing work. Industrial disputes comprise of strikes, which are a withdrawal from work by a group of employees; and lockouts, which are a refusal by an employer or group of employers to permit some or all of their employees to work. Reference: Industrial Disputes, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6321.0.55.001).

Industry value added (IVA)


Represents the value added by an industry to the intermediate inputs used by the industry. IVA is the measure of the contribution by businesses, in the selected industry, to gross domestic product. Reference: Australian Industry (ABS cat. no. 8155.0).

Infant death


An infant death is the death of a live-born child who dies before completing his or her first birthday. Reference: Deaths, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3302.0).

Infant mortality rate


The number of deaths of children under one year of age in a calendar year per 1,000 live births in the same calendar year. Reference: Deaths, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3302.0).

Informal child care


Non-regulated care, arranged by a child's parent/guardian, either in the child's home or elsewhere. It comprises care by (step) brothers or sisters, care by grandparents, care by other relatives (including a parent living elsewhere) and care by other (unrelated) people such as friends, neighbours, nannies or babysitters. It may be paid or unpaid. Reference: Child Care, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4402.0).

Informal learning


Refers to unstructured, non-institutionalised learning activities that are related to work, family, community or leisure. Activities may occur on a self-directed basis, but are excluded from scope if there is no specific intention to learn. Reference: Adult Learning, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4229.0).

Informal reserve


An area reserved on non-nature conservation reserve tenure through both legislated and non-legislated means. The status of informal reserves is not secure, relying on the state or territory management agency responsible for the interpretation and application of the guidelines applicable to the area within an informal reserve. Reference: Bureau of Rural Sciences, Australia's State of the Forests Report, 2003.

Injured


A person who is injured as a result of a crash, and who does not die as a result of those injuries within 30 days of the crash. Reference: Roads and Traffic Authority of NSW, Road Traffic Crashes in NSW, 2004.

In-stream water use


The use of freshwater in situ, such as water use for hydroelectricity generation and aquaculture purposes is classified as in-stream use, and is included in the accounts as self-extracted water use. In-stream volumes are considered to be a type of non-consumptive use, for although these volumes are also considered to be a form of regulated discharge, an economic benefit is gained from the use of the water prior to discharge. Reference: Water Account, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4610.0).

Intact family


A couple family containing at least one child aged 0-17 years who is the natural or adopted child of both members of the couple, and no child aged 0-17 years who is the step child of either member of the couple. Intact families may also include other children who are not the natural child of either parent. Reference: Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

International Classification of Diseases (ICD)


The World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is used to code illness and death to produce Australia's morbidity and mortality statistics. As a statistical classification, it is designed to encompass the entire range of morbid conditions within a manageable number of categories. Further details of the ICD-10 codes are available from the World Health Organization 1994, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, (ICD-10). Reference: Illicit Drug Use, Sources of Australian Data (ABS cat. no. 4808.0).

Internet access


Availability of lines, points, ports, and modem to subscribers to access the Internet. Reference: Household Use of Information Technology (ABS cat. no. 8146.0).

Ischaemic heart disease deaths


Deaths where coronary heart diseases, including heart attack (acute myocardial infarction, coronary occlusion) and angina (angina pectoris), are identified as the underlying cause ( ICD-10 codes I20-I25 for 1997 onwards). Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Job vacancy


A job vacancy is a job available for immediate filling on the survey reference date and for which recruitment action had been taken. Reference: Job Vacancies, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6354.0).

Killed


A person who dies within 30 days of a crash as a result of injuries received in that crash. Reference: Roads and Traffic Authority of NSW, Road Traffic Crashes in NSW, 2004.

Kyoto accounting


‘Kyoto accounting’ is relevant to Australia’s target of limiting annual emissions over 2008 to 2012 to 108% of 1990 emissions. Under Kyoto accounting provisions, the Forestry sector comprises new plantations established on agricultural land since 1990, a narrower definition than the Forestry sector under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) accounting provisions (see the National Inventory Report 2005 for further details). Reference: Australian Greenhouse Office, Department of the Environment and Water Resources, State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Inventories 2005, 2007.

Labour force


For any group, persons who were employed or unemployed, as defined. Reference: Labour Force, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6202.0).

Labour force underutilisation rate


The unemployed plus the underemployed, as a percentage of the labour force. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Labour Force Participation rate


For any group, the labour force expressed as a percentage of the civilian population aged 15 years and over in the same group. Reference: Labour Force, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6202.0).

Land showing signs of salinity


Land with dead trees, salt scalds or salt tolerant plants (e.g. sea barley grass, red weed, beadbush and samphire), land where crops and pastures are unable to be grown and land that is waterlogged for significant parts of the year. Reference: Salinity on Australian Farms (ABS cat. no. 4615.0).

Landlord type


Renters belong to one of the following categories:
  • state or territory housing authority: where the household pays rent to a state or territory housing authority or trust;
  • private landlords: where the household pays rent to a real estate agent or to another person not in the same household; or
  • other: where the household pays rent to the owner/manager of a caravan park, an employer (including a government authority), a housing cooperative, a community or church group, or any other body not included elsewhere.

Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Life expectancy


Life expectancy refers to the average number of additional years a person of a given age and sex might expect to live if the age-specific death rates of the given period continued throughout his or her lifetime. Reference: Deaths, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3302.0).

Linked trip


A linked trip is a journey from one activity to another, ignoring changes of modes. A linked trip comprises one or more unlinked trip legs. For example, a person who lives in Parramatta may travel to work in Sydney Central Business District by train with a walk trip to and from the train. This would be counted as one linked trip from home to work. Reference: Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport, 2005 Household Travel Survey Summary Report.

Live birth


The complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, which, after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached; each product of such a birth is considered live born (World Health Organisation definition). Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australia's mothers and babies (AIHW cat. no. PER 34), AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.

Livestock slaughterings and other disposals


Values are published as one figure but include two distinct components: value of livestock slaughtered and value of net exports. Reference: Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced (ABS cat. no. 7503.0).

Local court


A Lower Court level (also referred to as Magistrates' Court, Local Court or Court of Petty Sessions) which deals with relatively less serious charges and has the most limited legal powers of all the state and territory court levels. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Local Government Area (LGA)


An LGA is a spatial unit which represents the whole geographical area of responsibility of an incorporated Local Government Council. An LGA consists of one or more Statistical Local Areas. LGAs aggregate directly to form the incorporated areas of states/territories. The creation and delimitation of LGAs is the responsibility of the state and territory Governments. The number of LGAs, their names and their boundaries vary over time. Reference: Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (ABS cat. no. 1216.0).

Lone person


A person who makes provision for his or her own food and other essentials for living, without combining with any other person to form part of a multi-person household. He or she may live in a dwelling on their own or share a dwelling with another individual or family. Reference: Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Long day care centre


A type of formal care that is centre-based and is available to children between birth and school age for the full day or part day. Centres are usually open for most of the year. Reference: Child Care, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4402.0).

Long-term arrivals


Long-term arrivals comprise overseas migrants (comprising visitors and temporary entrants) who stay in Australia for 12 months or more (but not permanently), and Australian residents returning from overseas after an absence of 12 months or more. Reference: Migration, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3412.0).

Long term health condition


A medical condition (illness, injury or disability) which has lasted at least six months, or which the respondent expects to last for six months or more. Some reported conditions were assumed to be long term, including asthma, arthritis, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes, rheumatic heart disease, heart attack and stroke. Reference: National Health Survey, Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Long term unemployed


Persons unemployed for 12 months or more, where duration of unemployment is based on the last job. See Duration of unemployment for details of the calculation of duration of unemployment. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Long term unemployment rate


The number of long term unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Low birthweight


Birthweight of less than 2,500 grams. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australia's mothers and babies (AIHW cat. no. PER 34), AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.

Main activity when not in the labour force


The main activity of people who are not in the labour force since they last worked or looked for work (or in the last year if they haven't worked in that time). Reference: Persons Not in the Labour Force, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6220.0).

Main treatment type-alcohol and other drug treatment


Refers to the principal activity, as judged by the treatment provider, that is necessary for the completion of the treatment plan for the principal drug of concern. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services in Australia, 2004-05, Findings from the National Minimum Dataset (AODS-NMDS) (AIHW cat. no. HSE 43).

Malicious property damage

Intentional or wilful (not accidental) damage, defacement or destruction of any part of the respondent's home or anything usually kept at his or her home. The questions on malicious property damage relate to the respondent's home and any property belonging to the respondent or a member of his or her household, excluding any rental, investment or holiday properties that he or she owns. Property is something tangible in nature including land, conveyances, animals or other objects capable of being privately owned. Destruction can mean any alteration that may render something imperfect or inoperative. It can include destruction of property, graffiti or vandalism, partial destruction, killing or harming an owned animal, and removing or destroying a plant or other part of an owned landscape. Excludes turning off water meters and flicking safety switches etc. if no damage to the meter occurred. Reference: Crime Victimisation, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4530.0).

Manufacturing industries


Consists of the manufacturing division of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC). Reference: Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) 2006 (ABS cat. no. 1292.0).

Marginal attachment to the labour force


Comprises two groups of persons marginally attached to the labour force: persons actively looking for work, not available to start work in the reference week but available to start work within four weeks; and discouraged jobseekers. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Marginally housed


People in housing situations close to the minimum standard. Reference: Counting the Homeless (ABS cat. no. 2050.0).

Mean income


The total income received by a group of units divided by the number of units in the group. Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Median age


For any distribution the median value is that which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Thus, the median age is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger. Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).

Median income


That level of income which divides the units in a group into two equal parts, one half having incomes above the median and the other half having incomes below the median. Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Median ratio of housing costs to income


The ratio of weekly housing costs to gross weekly income is calculated for each household. The median is the level of that ratio that divides a group of households into two equal parts, one half having the ratio above the median and the other half having the ratio below the median. Households with nil or negative total income are not included in this calculation. Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Mental disorder


According to the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, a disorder implies 'the existence of a clinically recognisable set of symptoms or behaviour associated in most cases with distress and with interference with personal functions' (World Health Organisation, 1992, p. 5). Most diagnoses require criteria relating to severity and duration to be met. Reference: National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing of Adults: Users' Guide (ABS cat. no. 4327.0).

Migration adjustment


Under the previous NOM method, the ABS applied a number of adjustments to overseas arrivals and departures data in order to produce estimates of net overseas migration (NOM). These mainly comprised adjustments designed to reflect differences between stated travel intentions and actual travel behaviour. Until recently, adjustments used by ABS to produce NOM estimates were collectively referred to as 'category jumping adjustments'. They are now referred to more simply as 'migration adjustments'. Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).

Mode of travel


Unlinked trips have only one mode and one purpose. Linked trips can comprise more than one mode so a priority mode is allocated to each trip based on a determined priority of modes. Reference: Transport and Population Data Centre, NSW Department of Planning, 2005 Household Travel Survey Summary Report.

Motor vehicle theft


An incident where a motor vehicle was stolen from any member of the household. It includes privately owned motor vehicles as well as business/company vehicles used exclusively by any members of the household. Reference: Crime and Safety, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4509.0).

Mt


‘Mt’ is millions of metric tonnes of emissions. Technically a tonne of emissions is 1 tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e), which includes the greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and the synthetic greenhouse gases (the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), sulphur hexafluoride and the perfluorocarbons (PFCs)). Reference: Australian Greenhouse Office, Department of the Environment and Water Resources, State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Inventories 2005, 2007.

National Assessment Program: Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN)


The National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy tests are conducted in May each year for all students in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9. All students in the same year level are assessed on the same test items in the assessment domains of: Reading, Writing, Language Conventions (Spelling, Grammar and Punctuation) and Numeracy. Reference: MCEECDYA, NAPLAN 2010 Summary Report.

National Environment Protection Measure for Ambient Air Quality

Statutory agreement that outlines national objectives for protecting or managing particular aspects of ambient air quality. Includes national ambient air quality standards that designate the maximum allowable concentration for various air pollutants. Reference: NSW Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts.

Natural increase


Excess of births over deaths. Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).

Natural parent


A parent who is related to his or her child/ren by either birth or adoption. Reference: Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Natural Resource Management regions


Fifty-seven regions identified across Australia for the purposes of addressing natural resource management and sustainable agriculture priorities. The boundaries for each region have been established by agreement between the Australian Government, and State and Territory Governments. Reference: Natural Resource Management on Australian Farms (ABS cat. no. 4620.0).

Negative income


Income may be negative when a loss accrues to a household as an owner or partner in unincorporated businesses, rental properties or other investment income. Losses occur when operating expenses and depreciation are greater than gross receipts. Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Neonatal death


A neonatal death is the death within 28 days of any child who, after delivery, breathed or showed any other evidence of life such as a heartbeat. A birthweight criterion applies (see Perinatal death). Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Neoplasm


A neoplasm is a new growth of abnormal tissue (a tumour). Tumours can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Cancer refers to several diseases and can affect most types of cells in various parts of the body. Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Net capital expenditure


The value of total capital expenditure less proceeds received from the disposal of fixed tangible assets. Reference: Electricity, Gas, Water and Sewerage Operations, Australia (ABS cat. no. 8226.0).

Net interstate migration


The difference between the number of persons who have changed their place of usual residence by moving into a given state or territory and the number who have changed their place of usual residence by moving out of that state or territory during a specified time period. This difference can be either positive or negative. Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).

Net overseas migration


Net overseas migration is the net gain or loss of population through immigration to Australia and emigration from Australia. It is:
  • based on an international travellers' duration of stay being in or out of Australia for 12 months or more;
  • the difference between the number of incoming travellers who stay in Australia for 12 months or more and are added to the population (NOM arrivals) and the number of outgoing travellers who leave Australia for 12 months or more and are subtracted from the population (NOM departures).

Under the current method for estimating final net overseas migration this term is based on a travellers'
actual duration of stay or absence using the 12/16 rule. Preliminary NOM estimates are modelled on patterns of traveller behaviours observed in final NOM estimates for the same period two years earlier. Reference: Migration Australia (ABS cat. no. 3412.0).

Net worth


Net worth is the value of a household's assets less the value of its liabilities. Net worth may be negative when household liabilities exceed household assets.
Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

New dwelling


Is a dwelling that has been completed within 12 months of the lodgement of a loan application, and the borrower will be the first occupant. Reference: Housing Finance, Australia (ABS cat. no. 5609.0).

Non-admitted patient occasion of service


Occurs when a patient attends a functional unit of the hospital for the purpose of receiving some form of service, but is not admitted. A visit for administrative purposes is not an occasion of service. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Non-dependent child


A natural, step, adopted or foster child of a couple or lone parent usually resident in the household, aged 15 years and over and who is not a full-time student aged 15–24 years, and who has no partner or child of his or her own in the household. Reference: Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Non-financial assets


Non-financial assets are all assets other than financial assets. Examples include residential and non-residential property, household contents and vehicles. Reference: Household Wealth and Wealth Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6554.0).

Non-formal learning


Non-formal learning refers to structured, taught learning, but differs from formal learning in that it does not lead to a qualification within the AQF. It includes non-accredited workplace training, that is, training that does not lead to a recognised qualification. Reference: Adult Learning, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4229.0).

Non-government school


Any school not administered by a Department of Education, but including special schools administered by government authorities other than the state and territory education departments. Reference: Schools, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4221.0).

Non-medical drug use


The definition used in the survey questionnaire and for this publication is: either alone or with other drugs in order to induce or enhance a drug experience; or for performance (e.g. athletic) enhancement; or for cosmetic (e.g. body shaping) purposes. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), National Drug Strategy Household Survey, 2007.

Non-private dwelling


Dwellings that provide a communal or transitory type of accommodation. They include hotels, motels, guest houses, prisons, religious and charitable institutions, defence establishments, hospitals and other communal dwellings. Reference: 2006 Census Dictionary (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Non-school qualification


Non-school qualifications are awarded for educational attainments other than those of pre-primary, primary or secondary education. They include qualifications at the Post Graduate Degree level, Master Degree level, Graduate Diploma and Graduate Certificate level, Bachelor Degree level, Advanced Diploma and Diploma level, and Certificates I, II, III and IV levels. Reference: Education and Work, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6227.0).

Notifiable disease


Certification in an approved form of a disease listed in the Schedule 3 of Notifiable Diseases of the NSW Public Health Act 1991. Reference: NSW Department of Health, The Health of the People of New South Wales - Report of the Chief Health Officer.

Not in the labour force


Persons who were not classified as employed or unemployed. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Occasional care


A type of formal care provided mainly for children who have not started school. These services cater mainly for the needs of families who require short term care for their children. Reference: Child Care, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4402.0).

Occupation


A collection of jobs which are sufficiently similar in their main tasks to be grouped together for the purposes of classification. The Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) Second Edition, which is used for the classification of occupations, applies skill level and skill specialisation as major criteria. Reference: Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO), Second Edition (ABS cat. no. 1220.0).

Occupational diseases


Includes diseases contracted or aggravated in the course of employment and to which employment was a contributing factor. Reference: WorkCover Authority of NSW, Workers Compensation Statistical Bulletin, 2004-05.

Offence proven (Children's Court)


Proven offences include those appearances resulting in referral to drug programs, return to former custody, revoked or amended community service orders. Offences resulting in a dismissal or caution after a referral to a Youth Justice Conference are also included in this report as a proven offence. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

One parent family


A family consisting of a lone parent with at least one dependent or non-dependent child (regardless of age) who is also usually residing in the household. Reference: Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Operating profit before tax (OPBT)


Profit before extraordinary items are brought to account and prior to the deduction of income tax and appropriations to owners (e.g. dividends paid), i.e. total income, minus total expenses, plus change in inventories. Reference: Australian Industry (ABS cat. no. 8155.0).

Original series


Estimates produced directly from the survey data, before seasonal adjustment or trend estimation takes place. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Other business operators


People who operate their own business, with or without employees, but who are not operating as independent contractors. Other business operators are distinguished from independent contractors in that they generally generate their income from managing their staff or from selling goods or services to the public, rather than providing a labour service directly to a client. Other business operators spend little time working on client tasks with most of their time spent on managing their employees and/or business. Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia, Nov 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Other days of reduced activity


Days other than days away from work or from school/study on which a person had cut down on their usual activities for at least half the day, as a result of personal injury or illness. Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Other dwelling


Includes caravans, houseboats, or houses or flats attached to a shop or other commercial premise. Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Other formal care


A type of formal care other than before and/or after school care, long day care, family day care, occasional care and preschool. Reference: Child Care, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4402.0).

Other health professional (OHP)


Comprises: Aboriginal health worker (n.e.c.), Accredited counsellor, Acupuncturist, Alcohol and drug worker (n.e.c.), Audiologist/Audiometrist, Chemist (for advice), Chiropodist/podiatrist, Chiropractor, Dietitian/Nutritionist, Herbalist, Hypnotherapist, Naturopath, Nurse, Occupational therapist, Optician/optometrist, Osteopath, Physiotherapist/hydrotherapist, Psychologist, Social worker/welfare officer, Speech therapist/pathologist. Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Other income


Income other than wages and salaries, own business or partnership income and government pensions and allowances. This includes income received as a result of ownership of financial assets (interest, dividends), and of non-financial assets (rent, royalties) and other regular receipts from sources such as superannuation, child support, workers' compensation and scholarships. Income from rent is net of operating expenses and depreciation and may be negative when these are greater than gross receipts. Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Other work-related injuries


Other work-related injuries are caused by incidents arising out of the injured person’s employment while they are away from the workplace. They include injuries sustained while commuting to or from work or during a recess while the worker is away from work. Reference: WorkCover Authority of NSW, Workers Compensation Statistical Bulletin, 2004-05.

Out-of-Home Care (OOHC)


In certain circumstances children and young people may not be able to live at home with their families. OOHC services provide placement and support to children and young people and their families where children and young people have been assessed as being at risk of harm, or where their parents are unable, for a period of time, to provide care. Reference: NSW Department of Community Services, 2006, Annual Statistical Report, 2004-05.

Overseas arrivals and departures (OAD)


Refers to the recorded arrival or departure of persons through Australian airports (or sea ports). Statistics on OAD relate to the number of movements of travellers rather than the number of travellers (i.e. the multiple movements of individual persons during a given reference period are all counted). Reference: Overseas Arrivals and Departures (ABS cat. no. 3401.0).

Overweight or obese adults


Overweight is defined by a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 25 and less than 30, while obesity is defined by a BMI greater than or equal to 30. BMI is body weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in metres. Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Owner managers of incorporated enterprises


Persons who work in their own incorporated enterprise, that is, a business entity which is registered as a separate legal entity to its members or owners (also known as a limited liability company). Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Owner managers of unincorporated enterprises


Persons who operate their own unincorporated enterprise, that is, a business entity in which the owner and the business are legally inseparable, so that the owner is liable for any business debts that are incurred. Includes those engaged independently in a trade or profession. Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Owner (of dwelling)


A household in which at least one member owns the dwelling in which the household members usually reside. Owners are divided into two classifications - owners without a mortgage and owners with a mortgage. If there is any outstanding mortgage or loan secured against the dwelling the household is an owner with a mortgage. If there is no mortgage or loan secured against the dwelling the household is an owner without a mortgage. Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Own unincorporated business income


The profit/loss that accrues to persons as owners of, or partners in, unincorporated businesses. Profit/loss consists of the value of gross output of the business after the deduction of operating expenses (including depreciation). Losses occur when operating expenses are greater than gross receipts and are treated as negative income. Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Parole


A parole order is made following a period of imprisonment and requires an offender to be subject to supervision in the community. Additional conditions may also be applied such as programs, counselling or drug testing. Reference: Corrective Services, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

Patient days


The total number of days for patients who were admitted for an episode of care and who separated during a specified reference period. A patient who is admitted and separated on the same day is allocated one patient day. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Patient presentation


The presentation of a patient at an emergency department occurs following the arrival of the patient at the emergency department. It is the earliest occasion of being registered clerically, or triaged. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Perceived crime or public nuisance problems


Anything perceived by a person to be a problem arising from crime or people creating a public nuisance. Reference: Crime and Safety, New South Wales (ABS cat. no. 4509.1).

Perinatal death


A perinatal death is a fetal death or neonatal death. Perinatal death statistics include all fetuses and infants delivered weighing at least 400 grams or (when birthweight is unavailable) the corresponding gestational age (20 weeks), whether alive or dead. Period of gestation is measured from the first day of the last normal menstrual period to the date of birth and is expressed in completed weeks. Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Periodic detention


A type of custody or order where a sentenced prisoner is required to be held in custody on a part-time basis. Currently this consists of two consecutive days in a one-week period, while remaining at liberty during the rest of the week. Reference: Corrective Services, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

Permanent arrivals


Permanent arrivals (settlers) comprise:
  • travellers who hold migrant visas (regardless of stated intended period of stay);
  • New Zealand citizens who indicate an intention to migrate permanently; and
  • those who are otherwise eligible to settle (e.g. overseas-born children of Australian citizens).

This definition of settlers is used by DIAC. Prior to 1985 the definition of settlers used by the ABS was the stated intention of the traveller only. Numerically the effect of the change in definition is insignificant. The change was made to avoid the confusion caused by minor differences between data on settlers published separately by the ABS and DIAC. Reference: Migration, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3412.0).

Permanent departures

Permanent departures are Australian residents (including former settlers) who on departure state that they are departing permanently. Reference: Migration, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3412.0).

Persons of Interest (POI) in Apprehended Violence Orders


The defendant in an Apprehended Violence Order. Figures in Crime and Justice Table 15 should not be directly compared to the corresponding table in the publication New South Wales Regional Statistics, 2007 (cat. no. 1368.1) since the Local Government Area of residence of the protected person was used in the earlier report. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Persons charged


A person charged refers to a group of one or more charges, against a single individual, which are finalised by the court on a single day. Such a group of finalised charges against a single individual is also referred to as a finalised court appearance. A company charged with an offence is treated as a person. If a person is a defendant in more than one court appearance during the counting period, such a person will be counted more than once in the report. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Persons found guilty (Local courts)


Those persons who, for at least one offence charged, either pleaded guilty, were found guilty ex parte, or were found guilty after a defended hearing. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Persons found guilty (District or Supreme Courts)


Those persons who, for at least one offence charged, either pleaded guilty or were found guilty by trial. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.

Population growth


For Australia, population growth is the sum of natural increase and net overseas migration. For states and territories, population growth also includes net interstate migration. After the Census, intercensal population growth also includes an allowance for intercensal discrepancy. Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).

Population projections


The ABS produces several series of population projections based on different combinations of assumptions about mortality, fertility and migration. The assumptions underlying series B most closely reflect prevailing trends and comprise: declining rates of mortality; the total fertility rate for Australia falling to 1.6 by 2001, and then remaining constant; low levels of overseas migration (Australian annual net gain of 100,000 from 2005-06); and medium levels of interstate migration. Reference: Population Projections, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3222.0).

Preschool


Educational and developmental programs for children in the year (or in some jurisdictions, two years) before they begin full-time primary education. Reference: Child Care, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4402.0).

Presumed extinct (species)


A species is eligible to be listed as a species that is presumed extinct at a particular time if, in the opinion of the Scientific Committee, it has not been recorded in its known or expected habitat in NSW, despite targeted surveys, over a time frame appropriate, in the opinion of the Scientific Committee, to its life cycle and form. Reference: Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Preterm birth


Birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australia's mothers and babies (AIHW cat. no. PER 34), AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.

Primary car


A person who provides the most informal assistance, in terms or supervision, to a person with one or more disabilities. Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Primary school education


Primary education typically commences at around age five and lasts for seven to eight years. It does not include sessional education such as preschool education. In New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory, primary education may extend from Pre-year 1 to Year 6. In Queensland, South Australia, and Western Australia it may extend from Pre-year 1 to Year 7. Queensland introduced a formal Pre-year 1 grade of school education in 2007. The structure of schooling in the Northern Territory changed in 2008 with Year 7 schooling now considered part of secondary education. Reference: Schools, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4221.0).

Principal drug of concern


Refers to the main substance that the client states led them to seek treatment from the alcohol and other drug treatment agency. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services in Australia, 2004-05, Findings from the National Minimum Dataset (AODS-NMDS) (AIHW cat. no. HSE 43).

Principal source of income


That source from which the most positive income is received. If total income is nil or negative the principal source is undefined. Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Priority purpose


Return to home trips are coded according to the main previous purpose. For example, if a person is returning home from work and stopped off at the shops quickly on the way, the incidental trip is ignored and the main purpose remains work. Reference: Transport and Population Data Centre, NSW Department of Planning, 2007 Household Travel Survey Summary Report.

Private dwelling


Normally a house, flat or even a room. It can also be a caravan, houseboat, tent, or a house attached to an office or rooms above a shop. Reference: 2006 Census Dictionary (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Private health insurance


Provides cover against all or part of hospital theatre and accommodation costs in either a public or private hospital, medical costs in hospital, and costs associated with a range of services, not covered under Medicare including private dental services, optical, chiropractic, home nursing, ambulance, natural therapies and other ancillary services. Ancillary insurance covers services such as dental, optical, therapies and other general non-accommodation services. Reference: Private Health Insurance Administration Council.

Private hospital


A privately owned and operated institution, catering for patients who are treated by a doctor of their own choice. Patients are charged fees for accommodation and other services provided by the hospital and relevant medical and paramedical practitioners. Acute care and psychiatric hospitals are included, as are private free-standing day hospital facilities. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Private new capital expenditure


Refers to the acquisition of new tangible assets either on own account or under a finance lease and includes major improvements, alterations and additions. In general, this is expenditure charged to fixed tangible assets accounts excluding expenditure on second hand assets unless these are imported for the first time. Reference: Private New Capital Expenditure and Expected Expenditure, Australia (ABS cat. no. 5625.0).

Proficiency in spoken English


For people who speak a language other than English at home, a self-assessed indicator of a person's ability to speak English and not a definitive measure of his or her ability. Reference: 2006 Census Dictionary (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Psychological distress


Derived from the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10 items (K10). This is a scale of non-specific psychological distress based on 10 questions about negative emotional states in the 4 weeks prior to interview. The K10 is scored from 10 to 50, with higher scores indicating a higher level of distress; low scores indicate a low level of distress. In this publication, scores are grouped as follows: Low 10–15; Moderate 16-21; High 22-29 and Very high 30-50. Reference: National Health Survey, Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Public hospital


A hospital controlled by a state or territory health authority. Public hospitals offer free diagnostic services, treatment, care and accommodation to all eligible patients. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Qualification


Formal certification, issued by a relevant approved body, in recognition that a person has achieved learning outcomes or competencies relevant to identified individual, professional, industry or community needs. Statements of attainment awarded for partial completion of a course of study at a particular level are excluded. Reference: Education and Work, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6227.0).

Quintiles


Groupings that result from ranking all households or people in the population in ascending order according to some characteristic such as their household income and then dividing the population into five equal groups, each comprising 20% of the estimated population. Reference: Household Wealth and Wealth Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6554.0).

Real gross domestic income


A measure of the real purchasing power of income generated by domestic production. It is calculated by adjusting the chain volume measure of GDP for changes in the terms of trade. Reference: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

Real gross state income


A measure of the real purchasing power of income generated by production within a state or territory. It is calculated by adjusting the chain volume measure of GSP for changes in the terms of trade. Reference: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

Recent home buyer


A household which bought their dwelling in the three years prior to being interviewed. Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Recorded criminal incidents


A criminal incident is defined as an activity detected by or reported to police which:
  • involved the same offender(s);
  • involved the same victim(s);
  • occurred at the one location;
  • occurred during one uninterrupted period of time;
  • falls into one offence category;
  • falls into one incident type (e.g. 'actual', attempted', 'conspiracy').

One incident may involve two offenders assaulting the same victim. This would be recorded as one assault incident. Alternatively, suppose a man reports to police that his neighbour demanded money from him, then assaulted him when he did not comply. For such an event, two criminal incidents are recorded because two distinct offence types are involved, even though the same parties were involved at the same time and in the same place. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Recorded Crime Statistics.

Recorded victims


For murder and manslaughter only, the counting units used are victims. Under the definition of a criminal incident one murder or manslaughter incident could involve two or more persons being killed. Because of the seriousness of these offences and their relatively small numbers, it was considered to be more appropriate to count the number of victims, rather than the number of criminal incidents. Hence, where one murder incident involves a person killing six people, six murder victims are counted. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Recorded Crime Statistics.

Recurrent expenditure


Expenditure incurred by organisations on a recurring basis, for the provision of health services. This excludes capital expenditure and depreciation (capital consumption). Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), 2006, Health Expenditure Australia, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HWE 35).

Re-exports


Re-exports are defined as goods, materials or articles originally imported into Australia which are exported in either the same condition in which they were imported, or after undergoing some minor operations (e.g. blending, packaging, bottling, cleaning and sorting) which leave them essentially unchanged. Included in international merchandise export statistics. Reference: International Merchandise Trade, Australia: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2001 (ABS cat. no. 5489.0).

Refinancing


For personal and commercial finance, represents a commitment to refinance an existing loan. For secured housing finance, only those loans where the refinancing lender is not the original lender and the security is unchanged are included. The refinancing of a loan to fund a change of residence is treated as a new lending commitment. Reference: Lending Finance, Australia (ABS cat. no. 5671.0).

Relative Standard Error


The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error of the estimate divided by the estimate itself. It is another way of expressing the standard error to make interpretation easier. It's useful for comparing the size of the standard error across different samples, and is often expressed as a percentage. As with the standard error, the higher the RSE, the less confident we are that the estimate from the sample is close to the true value. Reference: Statistical language (ABS cat. no. 1332.0.55.002).

Relative survival


This is the ratio of observed survival to that which would be expected in the absence of cancer. Reference: Cancer in NSW: Incidence and Mortality 2005, Cancer Council NSW.

Reparation


Reparation refers to all offenders with an order that requires them to undertake unpaid, justice agency-approved community service work. Reference: Corrective Services, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

Residential aged care places


The number of beds which are provided for long term nursing care to chronically ill, frail or disabled persons, and beds provided for people who are unable to live wholly independently but do not require nursing care, per 1,000 of the population aged 70 years and over. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), 2006, Residential Aged Care in Australia, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. AGE 45).

Restricted movement


This refers to persons who are subject to a system of restricted movement, including supervision and/or electronic monitoring. This category includes home detention that may restrict residence to a nominated place. Restricted movement can be either a pre-sentence or post-sentence order. Reference: Corrective Services, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

Retail turnover


Turnover includes retail sales; wholesale sales; takings from repairs, meals and hiring of goods (except for rent, leasing and hiring of land and buildings); commissions from agency activity; and net takings from gaming machines etc. From July 2000, turnover includes the Goods and Service Tax. Reference: Retail Trade, Australia (ABS cat. no. 8501.0).

Reuse water


Reuse water refers to wastewater that may have been treated to some extent and used again without first being discharged to the environment. It excludes water reused on-site, for example on-farm water reuse, or water constantly being recycled within a manufacturing plant. Reference: Water Account, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4610.0).

Revolving credit


A commitment for a credit or borrowing limit is given for a specific period after which the commitment is reviewed. Examples include credit cards, lines of credit and approved overdrafts. Reference: Lending Finance, Australia (ABS cat. no. 5671.0).

Risky/high risk alcohol status


Males aged 18 years and over who reported drinking more than 50ml and up to and including 75ml of absolute alcohol (risky) or more than 75ml (high risk) per day, and females aged 18 years and over who reported drinking more than 25ml and up to and including 50ml of absolute alcohol (risky) and more than 50ml (high risk) on average per day. Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Robbery


An incident where someone stole (or tried to steal) property from a respondent by physically attacking them or threatening them with force or violence. Reference: Crime and Safety, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4509.0).

Room occupancy rate


The room occupancy rate represents room occupancy expressed as a percentage of total capacity available during the survey period. Reference: Tourist Accommodation, Australia (ABS cat. no. 8635.0).

Sales and service income


Includes sales of goods, income from services, and rent leasing and hiring. These are valued net of discounts given and exclusive of GST. Extraordinary items are also excluded. Reference: Australian Industry (ABS cat. no. 8155.0).

Schooling restriction


A schooling restriction is determined for persons aged 5-20 years who have one or more disabilities if, because of their disability, they:
  • are unable to attend school;
  • attend a special school;
  • attend special classes at an ordinary school;
  • need at least one day a week off school on average; or
  • have difficulty at school.

Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Secondary school education


Secondary education typically commences after completion of primary education, at around age 12 years, and lasts for five or six years. In New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory, secondary education may extend from Year 7 to Year 12. In Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia it may extend from Year 8 to Year 12. Part-time secondary student estimates vary considerably between states and territories, as each education authority has different policy and organisational arrangements. The number of part-time courses available also varies considerably between states and territories. Age level data for part-time students are not published as not all states and territories collect the age of part-time students. Reference: Schools, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4221.0).

Self-extracted water


Water extracted directly from the environment for use (including rivers, lakes, groundwater and other water bodies). Some of this water is then distributed via a water provider to others. Reference: Water Account, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4610.0).

Sentenced person


A legal status indicating that a person has received a custodial or community-based order from a court in response to a conviction for an offence. Reference: Corrective Services, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

Sentenced probation


A supervision order made following an original sentence handed down in court following conviction. A probation order generally requires 'good behaviour' and compliance with the directions of supervisors. The order may also require compliance with conditions such as program attendance and residential requirements. Reference: Corrective Services, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

Separations


The term used to refer an episode of care for an admitted patient, which can be a total hospital stay (from admission to discharge, transfer or death), or a portion of a hospital stay beginning or ending in a change of type of care (for example, from acute to rehabilitation). Separation also means the process by which an admitted patient completes an episode of care either by being discharged, dying, transferring to another hospital or changing type of care. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Settler arrival


For further details see 'Permanent arrivals and departures'.

Sexual assault


An incident of a sexual nature involving physical contact, including rape, attempted rape, indecent assault, and assault with the intent to sexually assault. Sexual harassment (that did not lead to sexual assault) was excluded. Only persons aged 18 years and over were asked questions about sexual assault. Reference: Crime and Safety, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4509.0).

Short-term arrivals


Short-term arrivals comprise overseas visitors/migrants who stay in Australia for less than 12 months, and Australian residents returning from overseas after an absence of less than 12 months. Reference: Migration, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3412.0).

Skill stream


Those categories of the Migration Program where the core eligibility criteria are based on the applicant's employability or capacity to invest and/or do business in Australia. The immediate accompanying families of principal applicants in the skill stream are also counted as part of the skill stream. This definition of skill stream is used by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) who administer the Migration Program. Reference: Migration, Australia (cat. no. 3412.0).

Smoker status


The extent to which an adult was smoking at the time of interview, and refers to regular smoking of tobacco, including manufactured (packet) cigarettes, roll-your-own cigarettes, cigars and pipes, but excludes chewing tobacco and smoking of non-tobacco products. Categorised as:
  • Current daily smoker: an adult who reported at the time of interview that they regularly smoked one or more cigarettes, cigars or pipes per day;
  • Current smoker other: an adult who reported at the time of interview that they smoked cigarettes, cigars or pipes at least once a week, but not daily;
  • Ex-smoker: an adult who reported they did not currently smoke, but had regularly smoked daily, or had smoked at least 100 cigarettes, or smoked pipes, cigars, etc at least 20 times in their lifetime; or
  • Never smoked: an adult who reported they had never regularly smoked daily, or had smoked less than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and had smoked pipes, cigars, etc less than 20 times.

Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Special school


A special school provides special instruction for physically and/or mentally disabled or impaired students, or those with social problems. Students must exhibit one or more of the following characteristics before enrolment is allowed: mental or physical disability or impairment, slow learning ability, social or emotional problems, in custody, on remand or in hospital. Reference: Schools, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4221.0).

Specific limitation or restriction


A limitation in core activities, or a restriction in schooling and/or employment. Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Standard Error


The Standard Error (SE) is one way of measuring the sampling error of an estimate. The theory shows that there are about two chances in three that an estimate from a sample is within one standard error of the true value (the value for the whole population). As such, the larger the standard error, the less confident we are that the estimate from the sample is close to the true value.

There are several types of Standard Error (SE). A commonly used type of standard error in the Australian Bureau of Statistics is the Standard Error of the Mean. Reference: Statistical language (ABS cat. no. 1332.0.55.002).

Standardised death rate (SDR)


Standardised death rates enable the comparison of death rates between populations with different age structures by relating them to a standard population. The ABS standard populations relate to the years ending in 1 (e.g. 1991). The current standard population is all persons in the Australian population at June 2001. SDRs are expressed per 1,000 or 100,000 persons. There are two methods of calculating SDRs:
  • The direct method - this is used when the populations under study are large and the age-specific death rates are reliable. It is the overall death rate that would have prevailed in the standard population if it had experienced at each age the death rates of the population under study; and
  • The indirect method - this is used when the populations under study are small and the age-specific death rates are unreliable or not known. It is an adjustment to the crude death rate of the standard population to account for the variation between the actual number of deaths in the population under study and the number of deaths which would have occurred if the population under study had experienced the age-specific death rates of the standard population.

Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).

State final demand


The aggregate obtained by summing government final consumption expenditure, household final consumption expenditure, private gross fixed capital formation and the gross fixed capital formation of public corporations and general government. It is conceptually equivalent to the Australia level aggregate domestic final demand. Reference: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

Statistical Division (SD)


Statistical Divisions (SD) consist of one or more Statistical Subdivisions (SSD). These are designed to be relatively homogeneous regions characterised by identifiable social and economic units within the region, under the unifying influence of one or more major towns or cities. Reference: Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (ABS cat. no. 1216.0).

Statistical Local Area (SLA)


Statistical Local Areas (SLA) are, in most cases, identical with, or have been formed from a division of, whole Local Government Areas (LGA). In other cases, they represent unincorporated areas. In aggregate, SLAs cover the whole of a state or territory without gaps or overlaps. In some cases legal LGAs overlap statistical subdivision boundaries and therefore comprise two or three SLAs (Part A, Part B and, if necessary, Part C). Reference: Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (ABS cat. no. 1216.0).

Statistical Subdivision (SSD)


Statistical Subdivisions (SSD) are of intermediate size, between Statistical Local Areas (SLA) and Statistical Divisions (SD). In aggregate, they cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. They are defined as socially and economically homogeneous regions characterised by identifiable links between the inhabitants. In the non-urban areas an SSD is characterised by identifiable links between the economic units within the region, under the unifying influence of one or more major towns or cities. Reference: Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (ABS cat. no. 1216.0).

Step family


A couple family containing one or more children aged 0-17 years, none of whom is the natural or adopted child of both members of the couple, and at least one of whom is the step child of either member of the couple. A step family may also include other children who are not the natural children of either parent. Reference: Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Straight line distance


Calculated by measuring the length of a straight line between the geographical centre of the Census Collection District (CD) in which the person's current dwelling is located, and a central point within the suburb to which they travel for employment. The location of this central point is obtained by calculating an average coordinate (latitude and longitude) for all the existing street addresses within the suburb. This central point is positioned more closely to where the majority of these existing street addresses are located. Reference: Residential and Workplace Mobility, and Implications for Travel: NSW and Vic., October 2008 (ABS cat. no. 3240.0).

Student (School)


A student is a person who prior to the school census date is formally enrolled in a school and active in a course of study other than preschool or TAFE courses. Students not present at school on the NSSC census date were included if they were expected to be absent for less than four continuous weeks (excluding school vacations). Students were excluded if they had left the school or had been absent without explanation for four continuous weeks (excluding school vacations) prior to the census date.

Students who are undertaking TAFE, tertiary studies, apprenticeships, work placements, VET in schools or a combination of such pathways, in addition to 'normal' school subjects, are in the scope of the NSSC, regardless of which year of schooling these alternative pathways are undertaken. The workload of both the 'normal' school subject(s) and alternative pathways are aggregated together to determine whether a student is classified as full-time or part-time and in calculating the full-time equivalent for part-time students.

A full-time student is one who undertakes a workload equivalent to, or greater than, that prescribed for a full-time student of that year level. This may vary between states and territories and from year to year.

A part-time student is one who undertakes a workload less than that specified as full-time.

The full-time equivalent (FTE) of part-time students has been calculated by dividing the student's workload into that which is considered to be a full workload by that state or territory. To calculate the FTE of all students the FTE of part-time students is added to the number of full-time students. Reference: Schools, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4221.0).

Student (Vocational Education)

An individual who was enrolled in a subject or completed a qualification during the reporting period. Reference: National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Australian vocational education and training statistics: Students and courses 2003.

Substantiation reports


Reports which determine risk of harm or actual harm. Reference: NSW Department of Community Services, 2006, Annual Statistical Report, 2004-05.

Supervision


This includes community-based orders other than those categorised as restricted movement or reparation (e.g. parole, bail and sentenced probation). Reference: Corrective Services Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP)


A joint Commonwealth and State program to assist homeless people and those at risk of homelessness. Reference: Counting the Homeless (ABS cat. no. 2050.0).

Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP) client


A person aged 18 years or over, or a person of any age not accompanied by a parent or guardian, who receives support or assistance from a SAAP agency which entails generally one hour or more of a workers' time, either with that client directly or on behalf of that client, on a given day; or is accommodated by a SAAP agency; or enters into an ongoing support relationship with a SAAP agency. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), Homeless people in SAAP: SAAP National Data Collection Annual Report 2002-03, New South Wales supplementary tables.

Suspended sentence


A court may impose a sentence of imprisonment of up to two years duration and then suspend the sentence on the condition that the offender enters into a good behaviour bond. Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Criminal Courts Statistics.


Teaching staff


Teaching staff are staff who spend the majority of their time in contact with students. For the purposes of this collection, teaching staff includes principals, deputy principals and senior teachers mainly involved in administration. Teacher aides and assistants, and specialist support staff are excluded. Reference: Schools, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4221.0).

Tenure type


The nature of a household's legal right to occupy the dwelling in which the household members usually reside. Tenure is determined according to whether the household owns the dwelling outright, owns the dwelling but has a mortgage or loan secured against it, is paying rent to live in the dwelling, or has some other arrangement to occupy the dwelling. Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Threatened assault

Includes any verbal and/or physical intent or suggestion of intent to inflict physical harm, which the person believed was able and likely to be carried out. Includes a threat or attempt to hit with a fist or anything else that could hurt, threats or attempts to slap, punch, spank or hit in any way with a fist or weapon such as a bat, hammer or pot, situations where a gun was left in an obvious place or if the person knew that the perpetrator had access to a gun. Includes toy guns, starter pistols etc. if the respondent believed they were real. Also includes incidents where a respondent was threatened in their line of work (e.g. while working as a security guard). Reference: Crime Victimisation, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4530.0).

Total expenses


For the purposes of calculating economic and accounting variables, operating expenses incurred by businesses are divided into several categories. Excluded are extraordinary expenses, capitalised expenses, income tax and other direct taxes, GST and excise payable to governments, capital repayments or losses on asset sales, dividends, donations or foreign exchange losses. Reference: Australian Industry (ABS cat. no. 8155.0).

Total factor income


That part of the cost of producing the gross domestic product which consists of gross payments to factors of production (labour and capital). It represents the value added by these factors in the process of production and is equivalent to gross domestic product less taxes plus subsidies on production and imports. Reference: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

Total fertility rate


The sum of age-specific fertility rates. It represents the number of children a woman would bear during her lifetime if she experienced current age-specific fertility rates at each age of her reproductive life. Reference: Births, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).

Total hourly rates of pay index


Measures quarterly change in combined ordinary time and overtime hourly rates of pay. Reference: Labour Price Index, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6345.0).

Total income


Comprises sales and service income, interest income and other selected income. Reference: Australian Industry (ABS cat. no. 8155.0).

Trade union members


Employees with membership in an organisation consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members, in conjunction with their main job. Reference: Employee Earnings, Benefits and Trade Union Membership, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6310.0).

Triage category


The triage classification is used in the emergency departments of hospitals to indicate the urgency of the patient’s need for medical and nursing care. The triage category is allocated by an experienced registered nurse or medical practitioner. Patients will be triaged into one of five categories on the National Triage Scale that incorporate the time by which the patient should receive care:
  • Resuscitation: immediate (within seconds);
  • Emergency: within 10 minutes;
  • Urgent: within 30 minutes;
  • Semi-urgent: within 60 minutes;
  • Non-urgent: within 120 minutes.

Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Type of offence


The classification of offences based on the Australian Standard Offence Classification (ASOC) (ABS cat. no. 1234.0). Reference: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, NSW Recorded Crime Statistics.

Underemployed workers


Employed persons who want, and are available for, more hours of work than they currently have. They comprise persons employed part-time who want to work more hours and are available to start work with more hours, either in the reference week or in the four weeks subsequent to the survey; and persons employed full-time who worked part-time hours in the reference week for economic reasons (such as being stood down or insufficient work being available). It is assumed that these people wanted to work full-time in the reference week and would have been available to do so. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Underemployment rate


The number of underemployed workers expressed as a percentage of the labour force. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Underlying cause of death


The disease or injury which initiated the train of morbid events leading directly to death. Accidental and violent deaths are classified according to the external cause, that is, to the circumstances of the accident or violence which produced the fatal injury rather than to the nature of the injury. Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Underutilisation - headcount measures


Measures such as the headline unemployment rate are based on counts of people (headcounts), and indicate the proportion of the population whose labour is underutilised. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics, Oct 2009 (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Underutilisation - volume measures


Volume measures of labour underutilisation are based on the hours of available labour that are unused. These hours-based measures are valuable in analysing and utilising spare capacity within the labour force. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics, Oct 2009 (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Unemployed


Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and:
  • had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the four weeks up to the end of the reference week and were available for work in the reference week; or
  • were waiting to start a new job within four weeks from the end of the reference week and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then.

Reference: Labour Force, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6202.0).

Unemployment rate


For any group, the number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force in the same group. Reference: Labour Force, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6202.0).

Unincorporated business


A business entity in which the owner and the business are legally inseparable, so that the owner is liable for any business debts that are incurred. Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Unlinked trip


An unlinked trip is each component of a linked trip, including each mode used. For example, for a person living in Parramatta and working in the Sydney Central Business District, who travels by train with a walk trip at either end of the train trip, this would be recorded as three unlinked trips. Reference: Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport, 2005 Household Travel Survey Summary Report.

Unsentenced persons


A legal status indicating that a person is confined to custody or supervision while awaiting the outcome of their trial. Reference: Corrective Services, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4512.0).

Usual daily serves of fruit


A serve of fruit was defined as approximately 150 grams of fresh fruit or 50 grams of dried fruit. Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Usual daily serves of vegetables


A serve of vegetables was defined as approximately 75 grams of vegetables. Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Usual residence


Usual residence within Australia refers to that address at which the person has lived or intends to live for a total of six months or more in a given reference year. Reference: Births, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).

Value of dwelling


The estimated value of the dwelling and its land, as estimated and reported by the respondent. The data are only collected for owners. Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Very low birthweight


Birthweight of less than 1,500 grams. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australia's mothers and babies (AIHW cat. no. PER 34), AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.

Victim (Estimated crime)


A household or person reporting at least one of the offences surveyed. Victims were counted once only for each type of offence, regardless of the number of incidents of that type. Reference: Crime and Safety, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4509.0).

Victimisation rate


The number of victims of an offence in a given population expressed as a percentage of that population. Reference: Crime and Safety, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4509.0).

Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Schools


A program which allows students to combine vocational studies with their general education curriculum. Students participating in VET in Schools continue to work towards their senior secondary School Certificate, while the VET component of their studies gives them credit towards a nationally recognised VET qualification. VET in Schools programs may involve structured work placements. Reference: National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Australian vocational education and training statistics: Students and courses.

Vocational programs


Type of training programs (as distinct from non-vocational programs) designed to equip students with vocational skills and knowledge that prepare them for the workplace. This includes general education programs designed for students who may want to undertake vocational programs in the future. Reference: National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Australian vocational education and training statistics: Students and courses.

Volume unemployment rate


The hours of labour sought by unemployed people, as a percentage of the potential hours in the labour force. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics, Oct 2009 (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Volume underemployment rate


The additional hours of labour preferred by underemployed workers, as a percentage of the potential hours in the labour force. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics, Oct 2009 (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Volume labour force underutilisation rate


The total volume of underutilised labour in the labour force (hours sought by unemployed people, plus additional hours preferred by underemployed people), as a percentage of the potential hours in the labour force. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics, Oct 2009 (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Voluntary work


The provision of unpaid help in the form of time, service or skills. Reference: General Social Survey (ABS cat. no. 4159.0).

Vulnerable species


A species is eligible to be listed as a vulnerable species if, in the opinion of the Scientific Committee, the species is likely to become endangered in NSW unless the circumstances and factors threatening its survival or evolutionary development cease to operate. Reference: Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Wages and salaries (Economic Activity)


The gross wages and salaries of all employees of the business. The item includes severance, termination and redundancy payments, salaries and fees, retainers and commissions. Provision expenses for employee entitlements are also included. Payments related to salary sacrifice and payments to self-employed persons are excluded. The drawings of working proprietors and partners are also excluded. Reference: Australian Industry (ABS cat. no. 8155.0).

Wages and salaries (Household Economic Resources)


An employee's total remuneration, whether monetary or in kind, received as a return to labour from an employer or from a person's own incorporated business. It comprises wages and salaries, bonuses, amounts salary sacrificed, non–cash benefits such as the use of motor vehicles and subsidised housing, and termination payments. Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Wage price index


Measures changes in the price of wages. The 'Total hourly rates of pay excluding bonuses' index includes wages and salary but excludes overtime, bonuses, superannuation, annual and public holiday leave, payroll tax and workers' compensation. The effect of changes in the amount of overtime paid is not shown in this index. Reference: Labour Price Index, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6345.0).

Waist circumference


Waist circumference is associated with an increased risk of metabolic complications associated with obesity. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) approved the following guidelines for Caucasian men and women:

Men
  • Increased risk (more than or equal to 94cm)
  • Not at risk (less than 94cm)

Women
  • Increased risk (more than or equal to 80cm)
  • Not at risk (less than 80cm)

Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Waiting time at admission


The time elapsed for a patient on the elective surgery waiting list from the date they were added to the waiting list for the procedure to the date they were admitted to hospital for the procedure. Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2006, Australian Hospital Statistics, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. HSE 41).

Water trading


Transactions involving water access entitlements and water allocations assigned to water access entitlements. Reference: Water Account, 2004-05 (ABS cat. no. 4610.0).

Weekly ordinary time earnings


Weekly ordinary time earnings refers to one week's earnings of employees for the reference period attributable to award, standard or agreed hours of work. It is calculated before taxation and any other deductions (e.g. superannuation, board and lodging) have been made. Included in ordinary time earnings are award, workplace and enterprise bargaining payments, and other agreed base rates of pay, over-award and over-agreed payments, penalty payments, shift and other allowances; commissions and retainers; bonuses and similar payments related to the reference period; payments under incentive or piecework; payments under profit sharing schemes normally paid each pay period; payment for leave taken during the reference period; all workers' compensation payments made through the payroll; and salary payments made to directors. Excluded are amounts salary sacrificed, non-cash components of salary packages, overtime payments, retrospective pay, pay in advance, leave loadings, severance, termination and redundancy payments, and other payments not related to the reference period. Reference: Average Weekly Earnings, Australia (cat. no. 6302.0).

Weekly total earnings


Weekly total earnings of employees is equal to weekly ordinary time earnings plus weekly overtime earnings. Reference: Average Weekly Earnings, Australia (cat. no. 6302.0).

Wholesale finance


Comprises finance for the purchase of goods by retailers and wholesalers. Reference: Lending Finance, Australia (ABS cat. no. 5671.0).

Wholesale lenders


A wholesale lender provides funds to borrowers through a retail intermediary which may then also be responsible for the ongoing relationship with the borrower. Reference: Housing Finance, Australia (ABS cat. no. 5609.0).

With paid leave entitlements


Employees who were entitled to either paid holiday leave or paid sick leave (or both) in their main job. Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Without paid leave entitlements


Employees who were entitled to either paid holiday leave or paid sick leave, or did not know whether they were entitled to paid holiday leave or paid sick leave in their main job. Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Work arrangements


Arrangements, such as flexible working hours, permanent part-time work, shift work, job sharing or working at home, normally used by employed parents to assist them to care for their child(ren). Reference: Child Care, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4402.0).

Working days lost


Refers to working days lost by employees directly and indirectly involved in the dispute. Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Workplace injuries


Workplace injury refers to an accident at the workplace, either during work or a work break, and when the worker’s activity is under the control of an employer. Also included in this category are injuries that occurred while the employee was working at a location other than their normal workplace or base of operations (including in a motor vehicle). Reference: WorkCover Authority of NSW, Workers Compensation Statistical Bulletin, 2004-05.

Work related condition


Long term medical conditions reported in the survey due to an accident, incident or exposure, and which the respondent identified as work related. Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Work related fatalities


Fatalities included in this section are those for which a workers compensation claim has been lodged with an insurer and the person dies as a result of the compensable condition during that financial year. Reference: WorkCover Authority of NSW, Workers Compensation Statistical Bulletin, 2004-05.

World Heritage Areas


Places that have natural and/or cultural values of outstanding universal significance, as established by the World Heritage Convention. Reference: Bureau of Rural Sciences, Australia's State of the Forests Report, 2003.

Year of occurrence


Data presented on year of occurrence basis relate to the date the event occurred. Reference: Births, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).

Year of registration


Data presented on year of registration basis relate to the date the event was registered. Reference: Births, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).

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Commonwealth of Australia 2014

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